ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE    Vol. 6, No.  3,  2008
ISSN 1512-1887

GROWTH AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT FROM NONIONIC SURFACTANT AMENDED SOIL

A. Mohammad, A. Moheman and Seema

Abstract

The effects of Triton X-100 (a nonionic surfactant) on growth and nutrient concentration in tissues of wheat plants were examined. While in smaller doses, the Triton X-100 significantly stimulate the dry weights of plant biomass (shoots and roots) and nutrient concentration in plant tissues (shoots and roots), it becomes toxic to plants at higher doses. The nutrients affected by Triton X-100 were mainly Na, K, Mn, and Fe in the shoots and Na, K, Ca, Cu, Mn, and Fe in the roots. The effect on the level of Zn in both shoots and root by Triton X-100 was insignificant. In shoots there was no effect of Triton X-100 on the concentration of Ca in shoots. However, in roots, the concentration of Ca decreases with the increase of surfactant level in soil. 

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EFFECTS OF INCREASING FERTILIZATION IN ORGANIC FIELD FODDER AND ARABLE SYSTEMS ON DIFFERENT SOILS AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF EASTERN GERMANY

H. Kolbe

Abstract

In 1992 two organic field trials were set up on loamy sand and a loess loam in western Saxony, eastern Germany. In these long-term field trials questions of field fodder and arable systems, crop rotations with leguminous field fodder, wheat and maize, different organic fertilizer regimes and nutrient cycling were analyzed regarding their effects on soil fertility, yield and quality of the plant products. The main results and conclusions of the first nine years of these organic field trials are introduced and summarized here. During the crop rotation the Nmin levels follow a characteristic course from the highest levels after ploughing in the leguminous field fodder and the lowest values before and during the repeated cultivation of the field fodder. Leguminous field fodder shows a reciprocal adaptation by higher production potentials in lower available nitrogen systems and vice versa. This is true especially in arable systems with mulched leguminous field fodder, where a high N input but low legume field fodder efficiency and relatively low grain yields of the following wheat and maize crops are obtained. 

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WHEAT DWARF VIRUS: DISRUBUTION AND PREVENTESHION

V. N Baramidze*, J. B Schuberts **, A. A Habekush**, N. G Aleksidze *

Abstract

Wheat dwarf virus (WDV) is a prevalent virus pathogen of cereal crops. In the following decades, severe outbreaks of WDV were reported in Turkey. As Georgia is neighboring country of Turkey, there is a threat of virus entrance. In present study mechanisms of virus transmission, its symptoms and detection methods to achieve successful control strategies in Georgia are discussed.

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ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF EROSION AND MUD STREAM PHENOMENA IN THE RESERVOIR OF SEVAN LAKE

E.M.Hayrapetyan, H.V.Martirosyan

Abstract

Some materials of researches on finding out the intensity of migration of biogenic elements by river streams on the territory of water storing reservoir during snow melting and heavy raining, its accumulation in Sevan Lake are given in the article. The materials concerning the enrichment of Sevan Lake with organic substances and biogenic elements in the result of destruction and erosion of soil which was freed out from under the lake water are also stated. Complex of measures on reducing the migration of biogenic elements by river streams and preventing the processes of euthrophication has been suggested.

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UREASE ACTIVITY OF WATER-FREE SOILS IN LAKE SEVAN AFTER INTRODUCTION OF BACTERIAL INSECTICIDES

A.M. Karapetyan, H.S. Movsesyan, N.P. Ghazaryan, M.A. Sargsyan

Abstract

As a result of fight action against harmful insects in Lake Sevan coastal forest plantations within the period of 2005-2006, Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) bacterial insecticides were introduced into the soils. It was found that bacterial insecticides BT-23, BTB and lepidocide, introduced into the soils do not have any negative influence upon the urease activity of soils that have been water-free within the last 30-35 and 40-50 years. All the above mentioned gives great opportunities for application of bacterial insecticides in this region..

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PECULIARITIES OF MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND PASTURE MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH CAUCASUS COUNTRIES

G.D. Agladze

Abstract

The article deals with the main trends and specific measures for increasing of mountain pasture and hay mounting productivity for South Caucasus countries. The question of expediency of research work coordination in mountain meadow cultivation has been raised in the region. 

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MAIN CENOSIS OF HERBAGE OF NATURAL MEADOWLANDS OF EAST GEORGIA AND THEIR IMPROVEMENT

V.G. Iashvili, L. S. Tabatadze, N.Kh. Chaganava

Abstract

Mineral fertilizers improve botanical composition of the herbage mainly at the expense of increasing in them of the portion of cereals and decrease of composition of different herbage. In the course of vegetative phase, decrease of motley grass and increase of cereals is observed.

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INFLUENCE OF SOIL-CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF MUGAN-SALYAN MASSIF ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

M.G. Mustafayev

Abstract

In the article soil-climate condition and its role in agricultural developmet in Mugan-Salyan massif have been given.In Mugan-Salyan massif the investigated materials in them,mineralization of the ground waters and situation level have been defined widely and the influences for the improvement of meliorative situation have been given.

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ENTRANCE OF NUTRIENTS IN COTTON IN DEPENDENCE WITH THE DOZES OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS

V.I. Ragimov

Abstract

Accumulation to nitrogen and phosphorus in cotton in the phase of budding is connected with physiological peculiarities. This phase is a transition period to form generative organs and requires great amount of nutrients. The reason of the decrease of nitrogen and phosphorus content in cotton in the phase of forming boxes in connected with the transition of nutrients from vegetative organs into generative ones.

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INFLUENCE OF PHYTOTECHNICAL MEASURES ON THE CONTENT OF SUGARS AND NITROGEN COMPOUNDS IN LEAVES OF GRAPEVINE

Yu. Z. Barseghyan

Abstract

Under the conditions of different formation systems, length of pruning of fruit-bearing shoots and different loadings of grapevines the indices of sugars and nitrogen combinations in the leaves of grapevine have been studied during fruit formation and efficient growth of Mskhali, Saperavi and Hadisi grape sorts. It has been revealed that the unilaterally combined formation system with the mentioned indices in case of the tested three sorts exceeds the control fan-shaped, free and multishoot system. Comparatively high contents of sugar as well as nitrogen combinations contributed to the increase in crop yield, increase in annual growth of grapevines and expansion of leaf surface except for Hadisi sort.  

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HARMFUL PESTS ON MULBERRY TREE IN GEORGIA

Mz. I. Lobzhanidze

Abstract

The article covers the problem of harmful pest of mulberry tree in Georgia. We have described the most widespread damaging species one new pest from Nymphula species, exact systematic determination of which is not possible yet. The precautionary and control measures for each pest are also listed in the current article.

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PHYTO-SANITARY CONDITIONS OF MAGNOLIA COLLECTION AT BATUMI BOTANICAL GARDEN

N.Kh. Leonidze, F.E.Chaidze

Abstract

The present paper deals with the phyto-sanitary condition of Magnolia collection at Batumi Botanical Gardens. It has been established that Magnolia is mainly damaged by the pests. One of them is wide-spread and ecologically important species Ceraplates japonicus Green. Some biological moments of Ceraplates japonicus Green on Magnolia Grandiflora have been studied.

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THE THEORY OF SELF-WATERING FROM GEOMETRICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF PROCESS

Z.K. Lobjanidze

Abstract


In paper the theory of self- flowing watering, which in fact can be counted as generalization of researches of other authors, is offered.

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PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF DERMATOMYCOSIS

R.G. Bostashvili, M.N. Chikaidze M.L. Zhgenti

Abstract

8 heads of young animals of cattle (at the age of 38 moths) and 2 stallions (at the age of 5 and 7 months), sick with dermatomycosis and two persons (mother and son) diseased with trichophytia, who contacted with sick animals have been examined. The pathogenes Tr.mentagrophytes, type-ectotrix have been determined by the investigations of pathological materia, that was taken from sick animals. We treated animals by worked out by us preparations UP and UPS rubbing the oiniment three times into the damaged hearth, once in 3 days. Clinical symptoms of recovering in animals were noted after the first use of both preparations while after the second rubbing in of ointments the growth of hair was noted. The full recover of animals occurred after 1015 days. The preparations UP and UPS are high by effective and economic preparations. The animals recover very soon. The effectiveness of both preparations is100%.

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MEDICAMENT-SURGICAL TREATMENT OF AURICULAR AND PERYAURICULAR WOUNDS IN DOGS

V.I. Tvaliashvili, G.B. Antidze, T. Sh. Papuashvili, A.I. Ruadze, S. B. Chapidze

Abstract

Isolated wounds of auricular region are rearity in dogs, the most pathological processes are passaged on a periauricular tissue too. As the auricular tissue is rich in blood and lymphatic vessels and neurons, healing flows without complications, but a special bandage and suture are necessary. In our practice, as a matter of fact, hematoma is a common complicatione and we perform incision or aspiration procedures.To prevent perichondritis we need special kind of suture in combinacion with ointments, such as Vishnevski ointment or ikhtiolus. Also, antiseptic solutiones are recomended but we never use antibiotices in enteral or parenteral way. Sometimes we use vessel ligature to prevent more irritation and hematoma formation.

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ON OCCURENCE OF ACUTE FORM OF PARAMPHISTOMIDOSIS OF RUMINANT ANIMALS IN GEORGIA IN 2008

Sh.O. Potskhveria

Abstract

In Lanchkhuti district (the local source of Paramphistomidosis in West Georgia), with dominant wet subtropical climate, the precipitations happened more than standard in May-July, 2007 (69.2mm) and November-December, 2007, also in January-April 2008 (364mm) and at the same time the monthly indicator of air temperature in April 2008 was 15.1C, which exceeded the stand and April norm by 2.7C. According the Katcovs formula, calculated the forecast coefficient of Paramphistomidosis by the May, 2008 for Lanchkhuti district was 3.7. It meant that in the second half of summer and at the beginning of autumn of 2008 in the village of Lanchkhuti and near places the mass Paramphistomidosis of ruminant animals in acute form occured. Accordingly, the local vets should conduct unplanned prudential dehelmintization of young cattle. In Kvareli district (the local source of Paramphistomidosis in East Georgia), with dominant dry subtropical climate, in May, 2008 the forecast coefficient of Paramphistomidosis was less than three (2.8). Therefore in the districts located by the river of Alazani Valley the occurence of Paramphistomidosis of ruminant animals in acute form is not expected..

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USE OF ISOLATORS OF TOXIGENIC CLOSTRIDIA AS DONORS WHILE CROSSING THEM WITH NONPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA

J.V. Nachkebia, N.A. Chanishvili, M.R. Oniani

Abstract

Toxigenic clostridia are widespread in external environment in human, animal's organisms and sometimes in food. In a place of inhabitancy clostridia are found in association with other species of microorganisms, so they exchange genetic material and clostridia are turned out to be donors, in such a case for escherichia; herewith different properties are transmitted: resistance to antibiotics, toxigenity, hetopical activity, antigenicity. These properties are determined in plasmids, transmitted with transformation, transduction and conjugation. Toxigenic clostridia were isolated from soil, mineralized excretion of animals, internals of slaughtered animals and pasteurized milk. Only toxigenic cultures were chosen, which belonged to different species: Cl.perfringens, Cl.chauvoei, Cl.oedematiens and Cl.septicum. After referring them to species, they were used as donors when crossing them with nonpathogenic escherichia for the transmission of either properties.

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COMPERATIVE ESTIMATION OF PASTURE AND INTENSIVE METHODS OF GOSLINGS RAISING OF JAVAKHETI BREED

A. A. Chagelishvili, A. Sh. Chkuaseli, M. I. Khutsishvili

Abstract

The goslings of Javakheti breed may be raised successfully by the intensive method equally with the traditional pasture method. By pasture method of raising the youngsters of meat type should be slaughtered at 1721 weeks of age, but by intensive method of raising at 1214 weeks of age.

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MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF THE CROSS-BRED EWES DEPENDING ON THEIR AGE AND MULTIFETATION

T.I. Paikidze, G.T. Begheluri, N.Sh. Bekauri

Abstract

The milk productivity of the 2 and 3 cross-breed ewes, according to their age and the number of lamds has been studied. It has been determined that the lactescence of 2 cross-bred ewes is increased before the 4 years of age, but in 3 cross-breed ewes at 5 years of age. The minimum lactescence in both groups is observed at the 2 years of age. The lacrescence of ewe with two lamds is higher than ewe with a lamb, in both cross-breeds, in all age groups. The lactescence of 3 cross-bred ewes always is higher than 2 cross-bred ees within 2530%.

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MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF TRANSFORMATION OF MAJOR, SECONDARY AND BYPRODUCTS OF ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION IN WINE  CHAMPAGNIZATION PROCESS (REVIEW)

E.G. Kirtadze

Abstract


Based on literary data and our experimental data, which have been conducted over 30 years the results of transformation of carbon dioxide, ethyl alcohol, glycerol, acetaldehyde, organic acids and amino acids of wine by industrial strains of yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, var. vini during secondary alcoholic fermentation (wine champagnization) are discussed. Major products of metabolism are studied both in cell and in fermentative medium by applying of 14C radioactive compounds. Peculiarities of usage each carbon atom of ethyl alcohol, glycerin, glycin, acetic and succinic acids in yeasts are revealed. The analysis of publications and obtained results has significant importance in biotechnology of sparkling wines leading to their quality improvement. 

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INFLUENCE OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS AROUND SIONI AND BEING CONSTRACTED LAKBE RESERVOIR ON THE MAIN WATER-PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOILS

T.M. Japaridze, O.I. Dvalishvili

Abstract

The paper deals with the influence of mountain forests around Sioni and constricted Lakbe reservoirs on the main water-physical properties of soils. The forests with the highest indicators of water-physical properties were revealed which decrease to minimum surface runoff, prevent erosion processes, hinder accumulation of sludge in reservoirs and prolong their exploitation period.

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ESSENCE AND ROLE OF SME IN ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

L. A. Margaryan, R. A. Makaryan

Abstract

The essence of small and medium enterprises in the Republic of Armenia is reflected in the given article as well as characteristics of their role and importance of investigations and other essential indexes in the country`s GDP have been carried out.

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THE EXTERNAL ECONOMIC CONNECTIONS IN SYSTEM OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS

R.R. Mustafaeva

Abstract

Development of market relations showed that foreign economic relations are strong accelerators of economical and scientific technical progress. Gaining new achievements of science technical
progress considerably connected with multisided participation in international division of labor, scientific and technical exchange, world trade and of other forms of cooperation and substantially influence on reforms taking place inside the country.

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