|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE Vol. 6, No. 1, 2008
PHASE SOIL THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY OF SYNTHETIC
DYES AND THEIR IMPACT ON TRANSLOCATION OF TRACE METALS
A. Mohammad and N. Ersad
Thin layer chromatography of twenty one synthetic dyes was performed on silica gel mixed soil layer (95:5w/w) using water, aqueous solutions of anionic (sodium dodecyl sulphate); cationic (cetylpyridinium chloride); non ionic (polyoxyethylene p-t-octylphenol) surfactants and TX-100 mixed with organic modifiers as mobile phase. Amongst the surfactants used, 0.001 M TX-100 mixed with organic modifiers in 8:2 ratio was found to be most effective. The effect of various organic modifiers on the mobility of dyes was studied on silica gel mixed soil layer (95:5w/w). The TLC comprising of silica gel plus soil (95:5 w/w) as a stationary phase and 0.001 M TX-100Ethyl acetate (8:2 v/v) as mobile phase was found to be most favourable for achieving better separation of dyes. Furthermore a good separation of thorin, methanil yellow and congo red was realized on the selected stationary phase (silica plus soil, 95:5 w/w) and mobile phase, 0.001 M TX-100Ethyl acetate (8:2 v/v).
ELIMINATION OF POTATO BACTERIAL INVASION BY CHITIN
V. N. Baramidze, E. S. Davitashvili, I. G. Megrelishvili, E. T. Kapanadze, N. G. Aleksidze
Based on the results of carbohydrate-specificity, it was determined that lectins from unwounded and potato tubers with soft rot are specific to N-acetylglucosamine. Use of polysaccharide chitin, rich with N-acetylglucosamine, as the protection of wounded potato tubers against the bacterial invasion is recommended during their storage.
THE FORECAST OF THE INTENSITY OF SOIL EROSION FOR MAIN SOILS OF GEORGIA
G.P. Gogichaishvili*, T.F. Urushadze**, T.T. Urushadze**
The investigations show that as a result of elementary erosion control measures (contour processing of soil, contour cultivation, plot furrowing) on the plots of 200 m long and 100 inclination, soil loss caused by erosion processes is less than permissible (from 5 t/ha per year) for all the soil types in Georgia except red and yellow soils. On the slopes with 15-200 and 250 inclinations the loss of soil on 50-100m and 200m long plots is 3-5, sometimes 8-10 times more than permissible. Such plots require specific erosion control measures.
THE INVESTIGATION OF VETIVER GRASS (Vetiveria zizanioides, L. Nash) IN THE GREENHOUSE
G.V. Gavardashvili*, G.G. Chakhaia*, N.G. Gavardashvili**
During the authors’ being on mission in Israel, the laboratory researches were held on the plant vetiver, which is used against erosion. With the aim of defining of vetiver vegetation main indicators, the experiments were made on eight different types of soil suspension in the laboratory of soil, water and environmental protection of scientific-research Institute of Israel - Nive-Yaar. The whole number of soil suspensions was 56. Taking into consideration the factor of time, the standards of watering and the volume of soil, the maximal and minimal indicators of water capacity for each type of soil were established. The formula for the calculation of Vetiver height was defined. Taking into consideration the time, the evapo-transpiration coefficient and the number of sprouts were established..
FERTILITY OF THE IRRIGATED MEADOW-SEROZEM SOILS UNDER FODDER CROPS
The influence of stubble and root remains of fodder crops and depend on the state of biological characteristics, while cultivating during intermediate sowings on the indices characterizing the state of the biological activity and fertility of the irrigated meadow-serozem soils of the Ganja-Gazakh zone has been investigated and assessed. The detailed analysis of the qualitative and quantitative composition of microorganisms, enzymesand other and biological and chemical soil indices has been conducted. For the first time, on basis of biological and chemical soil indices, the integral assessment of the biological state of the irrigated meadow-serozem soils of the Ganja-Gazakh zone has been made.
INDEX OF SIMILARITY OF GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF NESTING BIRDS IN AZERBAIJAN
N. A. Sadykhova
The index of similarity of ornithogeographic sections of Azerbaijan is given (2 districts, 5 sections, 17 regions) on the basis of location of nesting types of birds. Such an approach determines the degree of reality of zoographic sections.
INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE GLOBAL WARMING ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUBTROPICAL TECHNICAL CROPS AND AGRICLIMATIC ZONE CHANGES
G.G.Meladze, M.U.Tutarashvili, M.G.Meladze
In the article we consider the influence of global climate warming on growth and development of tea and tung crops and on the agriclimatic zones in the humid subtropics of Georgia. According to the scenario, worked out by us, at the temperature rise by 1, the sum of temperatures during the vegetation period will make 200-240 stimulates growth of yield. In the districts distribution of tung trees, according to the composed scenario (at the temperature rise by 10 and the sum of temperatures 200-2400) favorable conditions will be created for production of high-quality tung-oil. With the scenario (at the temperature rise by 1) we composed agriclimatic maps for tea and tung crops. According to the maps the zones of their growth and development are located higher than the existent zones by 100-150 m, which demands realization of the extend agritechnical measures.
INFLUENCE OF NORMS OF SEEDING AND VARIOUS DOZES OF MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON A CROP OF GREEN MASS OF TRITICALE KARTLI-2
It is possible to assert, that in Georgia the crop of green mass and hay Triticale Kartli-2 is considerably reduced on the meadow-brown soils of Shua Kartli without mineral fertilizers. It is necessary to apply the increased dozes of mineral fertilizers under Triticale Kartli-2 to receive high crops of green mass. Thus the conclusion arises, that mineral fertilizers (N120Ð120Ê90).positively influence on chemical compound of green mass Triticale Kartli-2, increase the contents of dry substance and percent of digested protein in comparison with control variants.
EKOLOGICAL AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTIVE IN AZERBAIJAN
A. G. Babayev
The carrier of organic agricultural ideas and the founder of its movement in Azerbaijan was Ganja Agribusiness Association (GABA). At the initial stage of organic agriculture movement in the republic serious obstacle strongly preventing development and expansion of movement was overcome and elimination of “soviet” stereotype of thinking was managed. During the last 10 years from 500 up to 1000 people participated in annual enlightenment. Future of organic agriculture in Azerbaijan in many respects depends on political support of the state. The major goals of near future are creation of legislative and normative base meeting international requirements; organization of inspection and certification systems; creation of local consulting services to develop organic farming and expansions of movement of organic agriculture in regions; creation of network of training and education relating to European standards and promoting development of administrative knowledge and skills of organic farmers.
THEORETICAL ISSUES OF IMPLEMENTING THE INTERNATIONAL NORMS IN THE SPHERE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN THE SYSTEM OF LEGISLATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN
The paper deals with the theoretical issues of implementing the international norms in the sphere of environmental protection in the system of legislation of the Republic of Azerbaijan. It shows that corresponding principles reflected in the international norms are widely involved in the legislation of the RA. Besides, there is a necessity to perfect legislation state of the RA and to join RA to temporary international agreements.
CALCULATION OF DYNAMIC STIFFNESS OF GRAINS AT ABRASIVE PROCESSING
M.A. Grigoryan, S.A. Kokhlikyan
On the basis of analytical observation the expressions for determining critical coefficients of strain intensity at diverse types of hammering pressure of abrasive grain were received. In theoretical and experimental ways it has been established that the erosion force depends on the direction of effective hammering force relative to the large axe of grain. The largest delicate stiffness of the grain is provided when hammering pressure impacts in the direction of the large axe of grain.
THE USE OF NONLINEAR REGRESSION EQUATION IN HYDROLOGICAL CALCULATIOS
D.N. Kereselidze, V.Z. Trapaidze, G. I. Bregvadze, S. G. Mdivani
Problem of restoration of hydrologic series and their reduction to the prolonged period in the model of log-normal distribution and evaluation of nonlinear regression using an analytical equation is considered.
APPLICABILITY OF LIGHT EMITTING DIODES IN THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
The paper deals with comparative characteristics of the lightning devices used in agriculture and LED. Possible applications of LED in agricultural production are designated. On an example of experimental spectrograms of LED it is shown, that with their help it is possible to simulate any spectrum. Thus high speed action and practically unlimited serviceability are mentioned.
THE TERMS OF EMBRYONIC AND PARTHENOGENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF PARAMPHISTOMUM SP. IN GEORGIA
Favorable conditions for embryonic development of Paramphistomum sp. are created since April till October in Georgia. The optimum temperature for this process is 25-28C, when embryogenesis is completed in 2-3 weeks and miracidyas leave for external environment in the mass. Parthenogenetic development of Paramphistomum sp. takes place since June till October, the fastest is in July-August (average daily temperature of air – 26-27C) for eight weeks. In the current year cercaryas leave for external environment in that case, if miracidyas of Paramphistomum sp. gets into the body of mollusc (Planorbis planorbis) till the end of the first ten-day period of August.
RESULTS OF PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF PHAGE PREPARATION IN POULTRY FARMING
M.M. Natidze, D.G. Goderdzishvili, T.M. Natidze, M.I. Ramishvili
Prophylaxis and treatment of poultry infectious us diseases of bacterial etiology are mainly accomplished after using antibiotics. The goal of our study was to use intestine bacteriophages in poultry. As carried out investigations have shown introduction intestine bacteriophages improves sanitary-bacteriological indices of water, used for feeding the poultry. At the same time intestinal microflora is regulated, hen’s weight increases. Intestine bacteriophages have curative-prophylactic effect as compared to antibiotics, used in the poultry.
THE PPRODUCTIVITY OF INTERBRED BLACK-MOTLEY X HOLSTEIN COWS IN CRIB-PASTURE CONDITIONS IN THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
L. M. Minasyan
Investigation results have revealed that interbred (Black-Motley x Holstein) cows of local reproduction of ,,Sos Simonyan” Ltd. is well-adapted to the crib – pasture conditions in a foothill zone of the republic and have displayed rather high milk-yield capacity: milk-yield by lactations equaled 3000, 3325 and 3732 kg (milk-yield in average – 3352 kg), the average fat content of milk was 4.17 %, and the average protein content in milk – 3,29 %.The alive average weight of cows was 500 kg, milk capacity coefficient has been of average value (6.4-7.1), and positive correlation (r = 0,17 - 0,36) has been stated between milk-yield and alive weight. We offer to continue the application of bulls of Holstein breed for reception of interbred II and III offspring in black-motley herd and breeding of obtained offspring representatives ,,among themselves’’ as well.
BROWN CAUCASIAN BREED OF CATTLE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21st CENTURY
The article deals with Brown Caucasian cattle breed in the past, present and future. This breed was created in the countres of South Caucasus and in Dagestan in the middle of the 20th century. The animals of this breed are well adapted to the local geographical, climatic and fodder conditions. With good feeding the milk productivity exceeds 4000 kg during lactation period. At present the study of breeding is suspended, the productivity of animals has sharply decreased. It is necessary to combine the efforts of scientists and practical workers for the restoration of the breed.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE SELECTION ON THE HEMATOLOGIC INDICES OF REPLACEMENT OF JAVAKHETI GEESE
R.S. Mitichashvili, A. A. Chagelishvili, I. R. Mitichashvili
Close connection of some hematological indices with the growth of the organisms of the local Javakheti Geese of all generations (F0, F1, F2) has been determined. The number of erythrocytes in blood of young animals easly by increased together with the animals growth. The ganders differed from the female geese by higher content of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. The young animals of F2 generation, which is distinguished by high growth of live weight in all periods of postembryonic development, had more hemoglobin in blood (P≥0.001) and the number of erythrocytes changed in age dynamics of geese.
FORMATION OF INTRA-BREED TYPES OF FEMALE BUFFALOS ACCORDING TO FAT-MILK AND RESULTS OF ESTIMATION OF POSTERITY QUALITY
In order to increase milk fatness in buffalogy the long-term indexes of milk yield from one fodder buffaloes and its fatness (with the scope of more than 300 finished lactations in 105 buffaloes) were analyzed in Dash breed State Enterprise in Shaki district of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Four types of female buffaloes were distinguished according to the character of interrelation between milk yield and milk fatness. 17 buffalo producers were investigated regarding the quality of their progeny. Only two of them appeared to be improvers of the series of properties. The others were either deteriorators or improvers of some of the properties and the others were neutral.
PRODUCTION OF LEMON AROMATIZATION FROM LEMON SORGHO
N. Sh. Bagaturia, E. A. Uturashvili
Chemical composition of ether oil and lemon sorgho raw material as well as the process of extraction of raw material with water-spirit solution have been investigated. An optimum variant of receiving food aromatizer from lemon sorgho in the form of alcoholic tincture has been stated. The paper shows the favorability of the use of ether oil and alcoholic tincture as natural food aromatizer.
THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BIODIVERSITY AND SPECIALLY PROTECTED TERRITORY SYSTEMS IN ARMENIA AND SYRIA
H.I. Sayadyan, G. Barakat
The article deals with comparative analysis of biodiversity and systems of specially protected territories Armenia and Syria. The main objective of this article is to spotlight the analysis of biodiversity, the main problems relating to the biodiversity and specially protected area systems in two different countries: Armenia and Syria well known for their biodiversity richness with their similarity and difference.
THE WAYS OF ECONOMICAL REVIVAL OF THE SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE IN ABKHAZIA
The paper deals with the ways of economical revival of the subtropical agriculture of Abkhazia, such as tea production, viticulture, citrus, tobacco and others. The first steps must be: privatization of the lands, development of private sector, attraction of investments, short-term leasing of objects and branches, creation of free economical zone.
PRIVATIZATION OF THE AGRICULTURAL LANDS IN GEORGIA
P. P. Koguashvili, G. V. Zibzibadze, L. M. Gegenava
The topic of consideration of this paper is the land resource that is the country’s one of the most important and special material-tangible assets. It has always been considered to be strong economic basis for social interests and wealth. So the problem of agricultural land alienation on no citizens needs to be determined. Nowadays in Georgia on the land market there is no competitive local land buyer (farmer). Land property except juridical and economy importance has political aspect. Sovereign nation’s, state territory is a property of people. Agriculture is not only the country’s and peasants’ strengthening source of economics, but also the Georgian nation’s economic life style and its culture’s inseparable part that is naturally connected with Georgia’s historical places.
THE PECULIARITIES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECURITY MARKET IN THE COUNTRIES OF EURO-ASIAN REGION WITH EMERGING MARKETS
The article is devoted to the study of peculiarities of development of the security market in the countries of Euro-Asian region with emerging markets. Special attention is paid to the countries with transition economy, especially Armenia and Georgia. Several indicators of stock exchange development are studied. Volumes of trades in stocks, bonds and other securities at the stock exchange of the region are studied and compared. Main trends of development of the security market are discovered. The possibilities of integration and cooperation with worldwide security exchange systems and problems of adoption of different models of the security market regulation are considered. As a result of research, the ways of improvement of regulation of the securities market and activities of stock exchanges are suggested.
LEGAL, ECONOMICAL AND COMPENSATION MECHANISMS OF THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MOUNTAIN REGIONS OF AZERBAIJAN
The paper reports the all-round analysis of the program, carried out in Azerbaijan Republic, including reforms in economy. It is shown that in agrarian sector the program is on the end phase. Reforms in of economy could not render the essential positive influence on development of mountain areas. The reasons and problems of low activity of enterprise are listed. In the conclusion the list of measures necessary for transition to steady development of mountain areas in Azerbaijan is given.
COMPLEX MECHANIZATION AS AN IMPORTANT INTENSIFICATION TOOL OF
A. A. Zurabyan
One of the intensification means of agricultural production, simultaneously with chemicalization and melioration of lands, is the mechanization. Chemicalization and the development of irrigation systems can never produce desirable outcomes without complex mechanization.
The complex mechanization enables not only to decrease the work expenses but also increase the yielding capacity of crops. However, the capacity of the existing machinery pool does comply with the sizes of the private farms.
Therefore, it is required to solve the following issues:
- Ensuring equipment from different projects and using them through leasing mechanisms;
- Application of more efficient use of the existing equipment, in particular, by introduction of cooperation principles in this sphere;
Application of efficient mechanism of labor organization..
POSSIBLE WAYS OF FOOD PROBLEM SOLUTION IN ARMENIA
Privatization is a big historical, political and economic event, the goal of which is to eliminate former mistakes in management practice, to efficiency of reach resource usage and radically reconstruct economic relations. The task is to ensure national food security, food availability for unprovided market segments and realization of economic freedom by producers.
Privatization itself creates the private owner, who is economically responsible for future of the enterprise. However, quick and overall privatization, lack of experience, and absence of reform theory brought to unpleasant results.
From 1990-2000 the agricultural gross output reduced by 35%, irrigated lands reduced by 45%.
Therefore, the implementation of urgent fundamental measures is necessary to get out of the recession.
Here the significant ones are:
1. Clarification and precision of juridical and economic status of the idea "farm" and status of landowners,
2. Consider the interests of farm enterprises in all stages of planning and creation of strategic programs for agricultural development,
3. Buy out unutilized agricultural land from small farmers. Small-scale farming is technologically inefficient and not prospective,
4. Find effective form of assistance programs, fundamental reconstruction of infrastructure and financial-economic system,
5. Support farm enterprises and creation of insurance system. The major tool for struggle against natural disasters must become intensive production systems and scientific approaches to fanning,
6. Create protectionism for producers, which is especially important for small enterprises. This should happen on the one hand due to expansion of enterprises and on the other hand due to establishment of appropriate legal and economic background.
7. Food market and agrarian sector are especially suffering from difficulties related to sales of agricultural product. Marketing costs are very high. Prices offered by processing companies are very low. For the beginning State assistance is the solution.
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