|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE Vol. 5, No. 4, 2007
LIPIDS FROM HELLEBORUS, DIGITALIS, PALIURUS
E.P.Kemertelidze, Ts.M. Dalakishvili
Novel data concerning chemical composition and biological activity of plant lipids have been obtained. Unusually large amounts of neutral lipids (NL) are accumulated in the underground parts of Helleborus abchasicus A.Br. and H. caucasicus A.Br. These NL-s differ from typical plant fats in low content of triacylglycerols and high one of free fatty acids. NL-s from H. abchasicus and H. caucasicus exhibit anti-tumor activity. On their basis Hellipol – a remedy for the treatment of superficial innocent tumors has been developed. NL-s from Digitalis seeds are characterized by rare specific composition of triacylglycerols. Distinct antiviral activity of these compounds made a ground for the development of anti-flu drug – Digipurol. Specific lipid composition of Paliurus spina-christi seeds has been established. Tsarubol – original hepatoprotective, cholagogue drug containing lipophylic phenolic compounds from Paliurus spina-christi fruits has been developed.
POTASSIUM INFLUENCE EFFECTS ON THE YIELD OF MAIZE IN NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN
Amanullah*, Muhammad Asif*, Zahir Shah** and Muhammad Hassan*
Maize (Zea mays L.) growth and yield is most sensitive to K application in the Northwest Pakistan. The objective of this research work was to study the effects of different levels and timings of K application on yield and yield components of spring maize (cv. Azam) under irrigated conditions. The factorial experiment consisted of four levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and three timings (splits) of potassium application (T1 = One split i.e. 100% at sowing time, T2 = Two splits i.e. 50% at sowing and 50% at 15 DAE, and T3 = Three splits i.e. 33.3% at sowing, 33.3% at 15 DAE and 33.3% at 30 DAE) was carried out at the New Developmental Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2005-06. The results indicated that potash levels and timings had significant effect on all the parameters studied in the experiment except shelling percentage. Grains cob-1, 1000 grain weight and grain yield were increased to a maximum, when K was applied at the highest level of 90 kg ha-1 but maximum plant height, stover yield and grains row-1 were obtained in those plots when K was applied at the recommended rate of 60 kg ha-1. Application of full dose of K (T1) at sowing time increased plant height, grains row-1, grains cob-1, 1000 grain weight and grain yield while application of K in three splits (T3) significantly increased stover yield. Shelling percentage increased significantly with increase in number of K splits when applied at the rate of 60 kg ha-1. Application of K at the rate of 30 kg ha-1 increased grains cob-1 when applied in two equal splits. Application of K at the rate of 60 kg ha-1 increased grains cob-1 but at the rate of 90 kg ha-1decreased grains cob-1 while increasing number of splits. Grain yield decreased significantly with increase in number of K splits when applied at the lowest and highest rate but the increase in loss was significantly greater when the recommended rate of 60 kg K ha-1 was applied in three splits. Full dose of K at the highest rate of 90 kg ha-1 at sowing time is recommended to maximize maize productivity under the irrigated conditions of North-West Pakistan.
IMPROVEMENT OF VICIA GERMPLASM IN GEORGIA
A.A. Korakhashvili, P.S. Vacheishvili, I.M. Stepniashvili
Arable lands in the South Caucasus' Georgian area (1,1 million hectares) has deteriorated, mainly due to monoculture, neglect, water and wind erosion, lack of pesticides and fertilizers. Their rehabilitation and improvement could be achieved through reseeding and planting of appropriate and adapted feed legumes germplasm, recognizing the high agronomic potential value of the local seed material. Georgian State Agricultural University (GSAU) which is responsible for Georgian legumes and cereals germplasm, initiated genetic resources projects mainly to collect, evaluate, preserve, multiply and develop local forage genotypes using mainly the local germplasm. As a result of this effort it was possible to produce and release several populations of Vicia (Vicia dasicarpa, Vicia sativa and Vicia narbonenses), besides these landraces, GASU collected and evaluated above three hundred various species of local annual and perennial legumes: Melilotus, Lupinus, Galega, Astragalus, Trifolium, Medicago, Onobrychis, etc. The article will discuss results to-date and hint at appropriate management of forages in arable land and improved forages in Georgia soil and climatic conditions [1-3].
PERSIAN WALNUT IMPROVEMENT IN AZERBAIJAN
Zakir A. Ibrahimov*, Gale H. McGranahan**, Chuck A. Leslie** and Malli K. Aradhiya***
The Caucasus region is regarded to be one of the centers of diversity and domestication for many Mediterranean–adapted and subtropical fruit and nut species including Juglans, Corulus, Castanea, Amygdalus, Pistacia, Olea, Punica, Morus, Ficus, Diospyros and other species. The long cultivation history and the predominant use of seeds in the cultivation of the crops should offer a wide range of variation for most traits within and between orchards grown in diverse agro ecological conditions. Due to Azerbaijan’s wide range of topographic and climatic conditions, the plant species have complex spatial and temporal diversity and adaptations to biotic and abiotic factors providing excellent sources of germplasm. In Azerbaijan, about 50000 ha of land area is planted by walnut (Juglans regia), either by natural growth (25000 ha forests) or in cultivation (25000 ha). In other production areas, the walnut harvest reaches 15000 tons per year while the average yield in Azerbaijan is only 3 kg per trees. Some of the oldest walnut trees can yield 250-500 kg each per year indicating their genetic potential. Favorable climatic, soil, and geographical conditions and a rich germplasm pool of walnut can contribute to high yields. If walnut growth problems are addressed and methods of growing are improved, it may be possible to achieve a yield of 50000 tons per year. For the past 30 years, research has been conducted on the biological and genetic diversity (polymorphism) of walnuts in the country and germplasm from native habitats has been collected. Some of the results will be discussed in this paper.
INFLUENCE CERTAIN AGRITECHNICAL MEANS FOR DECREASE NUMBER OF TOBACCO THRIPS ON TOBACCO IN CONDITION OF ARARAT PLAIN
H. R. Movsisyan
Agritechnical means have great importance in the struggle against tobacco pests. We have studied tobacco plants terms, densities, fertilizers doses influences on the decrease of tobacco thrips number in plants, in conditions of Ararat valley. In this article tobacco plants terms, densities, nitrogen, phosphorus and kalium fertilizers effect on the decrease of tobacco thrips number have been introduced.
ECOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF SOILS IN THE ZONE OF VILASCHAY REZERVOIR SERVICE
G.G. Jabrailova, M.Q. Mustafayev
Many-years study of the soils on the territory served by Vilaschay reservoir showed the state of soils and under-ground waters, their mineralogical composition, dynamics and influence on the productivity of soils. Ecological parameters were determined in order to evaluate the changes in the soils of the investigated area.
DIFFERENTIATION OF AMPHIBIANS’ SPECIES IN HABITING ARMENIA
E. M. Yegiasaryan
During evolution the stabilizing type of the natural selection plays a decisive role that leads to formation of structural and functional systems, including a complex of phenotypic peculiarities, owing to which animals can more effectively adapt to appropriate environmental conditions. The most important of such peculiarities is sound communication which has a wide individual variability. The aim of this work was to reveal constant specific peculiarities of Armenian amphibians’ sounds, and also to revise the systematic data on bathrachofauna.
INFLUENCE OF CAREER METHOD DEVELOPMENT OF MADNEULI COPPER-PYRITE DEPOSITS
ON THE CONDITION OF NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS
T. D. Dzadzamia, U. I. Zviadadze, M. L. Mardashova
Harmful influence of career method of development of Madneuli copper-pyrite deposit on in soils and waters of adjacent territories has been studied. It is established that contents of heavy metals in the mentioned ecosystems are based on certain regularities: quantity of metals is more accumulated in soils and waters situated near the contamination hearth source and relatively according to distance from the quarry.
THE INFLUENCE OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM ON SPECIAL LOSS OF IRRIGATED WATERS OF ENSILAGE MAIZE
In the article the influence of different doses of phosphogypsum application on ensilage maize crop and loss of irrigated waters on their mass unit are examined.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE MASS OF LOAD ON FUEL CONSUMPTION IN MOUNTAIN CONDITIONS
O.A.Karchava, G.N. Abzianidze, K.Z. Razmadze
Mass of load greatly influences on the fuel consumption of trick. It increases according to the complexity of the road conditions, because in this case the power of truck is working in the unstable regime, which provokes the raising of fuel expense power of truck. The paper deals with the method and a calculating formula, which define growth of fuel expense due to the complexity of road conditions. The developed method is tested in the mountain road conditions on the definite truck and its usage in practice is approved.
EPIZOOTOLOGY AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES AGAINST AVIAN INFLUENZA
L.G.Orkoshneli*, K.D. Dzamashvili*, O.I. Bakhutashvili**
The paper deals with the epizootology and epidemiological quantitative criteria of world distribution of avian influenza . It describes a biological process of virus mutation. On the basis of the theory developed by us we give the most recent summary of veterinary-sanitary measures, which will enable the government to avoid the spread of the disease inside the country and at the first stage to localize the focus infection with subsequent eradication of the disease.
ABORIGEN BREEDS OF ANIMALS OF AZERBAIJAN
A.M. Kuliev, S.M. Surkhaev
Azerbaijan people since ancient times were engaged in creation of breeds of animals, steady against local climatic conditions.
Scientific republics have divided local cattle into two breeds:
• The Big Caucasus Row Mountains, getting divorced on spurs of the big Caucasus;
• The Small Caucasus Row Mountains, getting divorced on spurs Small on Caucasus and on the lowland laying between this mountain range.
Azerbaijan zebu gets divorced only in Azerbaijan, southern mountain and wood zone Lenkaran, Astara, Lerik and areas Yardimli. And the Azerbaijan buffaloes get divorced in regions where it is a lot of water and consequently are considered hydrophilous. They are large grease-milk to animals, steady to different infectious to diseases. In republic since ancient times in connection with distillery and nomadic animal industries are engaged job of a cameleer.Also since ancient times Azerbaijan is the native land of valuable saddle horses: Karabakh and Dilbaz. In Azerbaijan there are 9 different natural-climatic and economic zones. In these zones different radical native breeds of sheep’s get divorced.
CHANGES OF LIPID COMPONENTS AND SOME PHOSPHATIDOGENASA ENZYME SYSTEMS IN MICROSOMAL FRACTIONS OF HEART MUSCLES TISSUE IN CASE OF LEUCOSIS IN COWS
Qualitative and quantitative changes of membrane phospholipids, activity of phospholypasis A2, POL progresses in cows with leucosis are studied. The obtained results can be used for diagnostics and ethiopathogenesis of leucosis in animals.
PERFECTION OF TUBERCULOSIS DIAGNOSTICS OF CATTLE ON PRIVATE FARMS, INCLUDING NEW METHODS OF ANIMAL STOCK BREEDING
Yu. A. Shirvanyan, G. L. Baghiyan, S.L. Grigoryan
For differentiation of specific reactions to tuberculin on private farms, the subject of introducing simultaneous test and accelerated simultaneous test with statistic estimation of reactions of every animal should be introduced to veterinary practice.
THE INFLUENCE OF EXTREME CONDITIONS ON THE PROCESSES OF EMBRYONIC AND PARTHENOGENETIC DEVELOPMENT OF PARAMPHISTOMUM SP. AND VIABILITY OF FRESH WATER MOLLUSKS – PLANORBIS PLANORBIS
The eggs of Paramphistomum sp. keep viability at -2 -4C and +39C for few days, but eggs and their miracidiàms perish fast due to the influence of straight sun rays. In summer, on the pastures in fecal mass the eggs perish due to the high temperature, but in moisten places they keep viability approximately for 5 days. The fresh water mollusks Planorbis planorbis and the parthenites of Paramphistomum sp. in body of mollusks stand the drying during 40-50 days, still they perish in 70-80 days. In conditions of -2 -4C the mollusks Pl. planorbis keep viability and parthenogenesis of Paramphistomum sp. lasts slowly in their body and hastens when the favorable conditions come.
MEAT PRODUCTIVITY OF PIG IN A PIG-BREEDING FARM OF MARMARASHEN VILLAGE IN ARARAT REGION, REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
S.A. Pambukhchyan, S.M. Khachatryan, N.A.Mkrtchian
The conducted researches show that at keeping in the same conditions the Ukrainian meat breed of pigs exceed the pigs of large white breed by live weight (10êã), by absolute, average daily and relative growth. The pigs of the Ukrainian meat breed also exceed the pigs of large white breed by the qualitative indicators of carcass and slaughter outcome. They excel 4.2kg by the content of flesh in carcass. The pigs of the Ukrainian meat breed of 1kg growth consume 1.08 food unit less and quicker gather the slaughter weight than the pigs of large white breed. Profitability of keeping pigs of the Ukrainian meat breed is higher by 7.7% than keeping pigs of large white breed. Consequently, it is more profitable to keep pigs of the Ukrainian meat breed.
ANATOMICAL PECULIARITIES OF THE ROOT CHANNELS AND ROOT TEETH NUMBER OF CAUCASIAN SHEPHERD
G. T. Ramishvili Z. F. Badjiashvili, G.A. Tskvitinidze L.L.Tortladze
8 Crania were prepared from the Caucasian Shepherd carcasses according to the maceration method. The number of roots and root channels of incisors, canine teeth, premolars and molars of the upper jaw arch, possible variation in their size and distribution were studied. It is stated that incisors, canine teeth and first premolars more often have one root and one main root channel. The second, third and fourth premolars have two roots and two main root channels. The first and second molars have three roots and three main root channels. Sometimes we encountered different variants of root channels. Number of root channels coincides with the number of roots and the length of root channels with length and this is explained by the holes of the apex at the apex.
SOME INDEXES OF PRODUCTIVITY OF SHEEP OF THE MAZEGH BREED
Y.G. Marmaryan, Al-Afdal Ahmad
The experiment has been done in Hrazdan Marz, where sheep of the Mazegh breed is bred. Body weight, figure, wool productivity and wool net yield of the contemporary sheep of the Mazegh breed have been studied. According to the results the researchers made the following conclusions: 1) Contemporary sheep of the Mazegh breed insignificantly took off to the sheep bred 70 years ago by their body weight. 2) Contemporary sheep of the Mazegh breed are characterized by relatively high indexes of development. 3) According to wool productivity and wool net yield , the contemporary sheep of the Mazegh breed have quite high indexes.
SOME DATA OF EMBRYONAL DEVELOPMENT OF HENS OF THE INDIGENOUS POPULATION CHALISPERI AND MEGRULA
A.À. Chagelishvili, M. I. Khutsishvili, A. Sh. Chkuaseli, N. R. Maisuradze
The article deals with the comparative material of embryonal development of indigenous hens Chalisperi and Megrula. It has been determined, that in critical periods mortality in hens Chalisperi is higher (by 2–3%) that is explained by the retention of entering of white in amnions and the slower secretion of metabolism products in allantois in these periods.
BIOCHEMICAL PECULIARITIES OF AGENTS OF BLACK LEG AND INFECTION ENTEROTOXEMIA
T.F.Aloyan, S.L. Grigoryan, M.H.
The thrive growth of germs depend on their biochemical peculiarity and composition of culture media. The analysis of biochemical properties of agents of black leg and infection enterotoxemia promote to creation a new vaccines, culture media, besides it is necessary for diagnose of diseases.
CONNECTION BETWEEN ENDOCRINE GLANDS AND SOME BIOECONOMICAL FEACHERS APPLIED TO LABORATORY HEN
M. I. Mirgiyants, M.V. Badalyan, G.A. Gasparyan
In poultry keeping while breeding it is essential to draw attention to some genetic-mathematical parameters, one of which is reviling the corrective connection. The research was carried out in 1998-2002 in Sjunik, on Akhlation rural farm. Quadro linecross hens of Yerevan’s and Lomann Brown were used. In the first stage of research pure breeding was done. The second stage involved reciprocal crossing. The inheritance nature of some bioeconomic features was studied as well as the correlation between endocrine glands and some bioeconomic features. The results of the experiment in the laboratory hens have proved positive correlated connection between endocrine glands and some bioeconomical features to be applied for a test in selection activities.
APPLICATION OF GAMMA IRRADIATION FOR PROCESSING OF CERTAIN FOODSTUFF FOR
INCREASE OF THEIR STORAGE STABLENESS
S. I. Sahradyan, V. S. Voskanyan
A complex research for elaboration of method of raduration of some perishable products with high content of water (Aw = 0,65-0,95) has been performed, such as boiled sausage, frankfurters, wieners, fruit and vegetable products with interim humidity (Aw = 0,65-0,85), different sorts of wheat bread. The optimal conditions for processing with gamma irradiation of these products have been established, which allow maximally to save quality, food value and simultaneously to increase terms of storage.
ANTOCIANS DYE – INDEXES NATURALNESS OF RED GRAIN WINES
N.Sh.Bagaturia, N.A. Begiashvili, I.V. Kupatadze, B.N. Bagaturia
The paper investigated composition of antocians in red grapes’ wines. It was established, that the content and composition of antocians may used to identify the fact of falsification of wines.
SUSTAINABLE VINE GROWING, IS IT SUSTAINABLE OR JUST ANOTHER FAD ? – AN
Gemmrich, Armin R., Arnold, René C. G.
Climate change and international discussions about sustainable and environmentally friendly actions oblige us to rethink our way of working in the wine industry. Internationally, there is done a lot in terms of sustainable winegrowing. Especially new world wine producing countries are ahead in sustainable practices. This article summarizes the different approaches of major international wine producing countries and lists opportunities for other wine countries.
COMPLEX MECHANIZATION AS AN IMPORTANT INTENSIFICATION TOOL OF AGRICULTURE
One of the intensification means of agricultural production, simultaneously with chemicalization and melioration of lands, is the mechanization. Chemicalization and the development of irrigation systems can never produce desirable outcomes without complex mechanization.
The complex mechanization enables not only to decrease the work expenses but also increase the yielding capacity of crops. However, the capacity of the existing machinery pool does comply with the sizes of the private farms.
Therefore, it is required to solve the following issues:
- Ensuring equipment from different projects and using them through leasing mechanisms;
- Application of more efficient use of the existing equipment, in particular, by introduction of cooperation principles in this sphere;
Application of efficient mechanism of labor organization.
CHAVCHAVDZE ON AGRICULTURE
The paper deals with prominent writer and public figure Ilia Chavchavadze attitude and the ideas about agriculture and its future development in Georgia.
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