|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE Vol. 4, No. 3, 2006
HEAVY METALS IN SOILS
G.O.Ghambashidze*, W.H. Blum**, T.F. Urushadze*, A. Mentler**
We describe the problems of soil contamination with heavy metals, their natural and anthropogenic sources, their usage, as well as essentiality and toxicity for biota. In addition, maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals according to the environmental legislation of different countries are presented.
LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY OF AMINO ACIDS WITH WATER AND SURFACTANT CONTAINING
MOBILE PHASE SYSTEMS
A. Mohammad and R. Gupta
The mobility pattern of 22 amino acids has been examined by soil thin layer chromatography. Several TLC systems comprising various soil samples as stationary phase and doubled distilled water, tap water, saline water or aqueous surfactants solutions were used as mobile phase. The chromatographic performance of aqueous Tx-100 as an impregnant and as eluent has been investigated. Better chromatographic performance in terms of spot compactness and clear detection was observed when Tx-100 was used as mobile phase instead of its use in the stationary phase.
INFLUENCE OF SIMULTANEOUS APPLICATION OF NATURAL CEOLIT WITH FERTILIZERS FOR THE DYNAMICS OF NUTRITIONS IN SOIL UNDER POTATO
It is investigated by field experiences, application of natural zeolite together with manure and various dozes of mineral fertilizers in irrigated gray-brown chestnut in ground, the dynamics of nutritious elements in the ground under a potato of the western zone of Azerbaijan. It is established that, the application of zeolite together with fertilizers in irrigated conditions promote increase in the maintenance in ground of ammoniac and nitrogen, mobile phosphorus and exchange calium.
THE ECOSYSTEM OF VEGETATION COVER OF THE JEIRANCHEL-AJINAURI MASSIF OF AZERBAIJAN
Opposite influence of anthropolpgtcal properties, that is, the building of Karabag Shirvan canals which are situated on the border of Ceyranchol Acinohur plainm grazing of natural pastures by the cattle above the planned rate, cultivating of the land by the people with the agricultural plants caused 50 % of lands to be saline and lessen the rypes of the plants.
CATASTROPHIC DROUGHTS IN SOUTH CAUCASUS, NECESSITY OF THEIR MONITORING AND MITIGATION MEASURES
T.I.Tourmanidze, V. G.Grigoryan, N.G.Chikhradze, G.T.Tetradze
Frequent repeatability of catastrophic droughts is a prominent feature of the climate of Southern Caucasus. The following main principles from which the strategy on the reduction of losses and managements of a drought should proceed have been suggested:
• Integration of drought management and measures on its mitigation in national strategy of development and branch projects;
• Strengthening of hydro-meteorological monitoring and early warning systems;
• Development of a system of coordination response and intraregional cooperation;
• Development of long-term (seasonal) forecasts and strategy on the resolution of the problems connected with the climate change.
In Southern Caucasus it is extremely necessary to establish the Regional Center on Drought Monitoring under the aegis of the WMO and by the financial support of the World Bank and other international organizations.
ANIMAL BREEDING AND FODDER PRODUCTION IN GEORGIA: ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT. INFORMATION 2. FOOD PRODUCTION
G. D. Agladze
There are indicated the main indexes of the dynamics of food production in Georgia in 1985-2005. The reasons of drastic decrease of food productivity in terms of entering the market relations in the country are considered. On the basis of the analysis of the received materials of the tendency of development and productive base of food structure, the main courses of development of the field are taken to public discussion and in perspective the activities of growing the productivity and industry of the field and field-food-production will take place. .
FUNGI - A CARRIER OF MULBERRY PHYTOPLASMOS
The paper deals with the question of mulberry dwarf disease circulation with the help of the soil fungi Phialophora fistigiata (Lagreb et Melin). Conant. Phialophora have isolated from stems and roots of the mulberries with visual symptoms of dwarf disease (culture 208). Artificially infected with the phialophora plants had pale-green, small, deformed leaves with reduced internal phloem and positive reaction with reactant Dines. The received results show, that the Phialophora fistigiata is a carrier of mulberry dwarf disease.
SOME QUESTIONS ON CATION NUTRITION OF SOY-BEANS FROM TEA PLANTATIONS CUTTING OUT DURING RED LANDS CHEMICAL AMELIORATION
B.A Godziashvili. M.V. Chebotareva, M.D Kuchava. Sh.T. Mukhashavria
The work deals with the positive role of neutralization acidity of Soy-beans growth and development on the krasnozem. During the process of vegetation experiment of experienced chemical ameliorants, the best result showed the application of dolomite-doze exchangeable equivalently of acid. The difference between the application of calcium carbonate and Magnesium carbonate is that using of magnesium carbonate separately, tactically operated on the development of Soy-beans. By the application of dolomite increase entering calcium and magnesium in the leaves of soy-beans, the infectivity of magnum absorption was identified. During the application of dolomite sharply shortened entering of potassium in the leaves of soy-beans, that shows the need of increase of the doze of potassium fertilizers.
PROSPECTS OF USE OF TWO-HANDLE GRAIN
I.A.Zedginidze, J.G.Shengelia, Z.D.Khachidze, G.B.Demetrashvili
Results of economic study of grades of two-handles of oats and wheat in conditions of Mukhrani valley are offered. Experiments were conducted in two terms - summer and winter sowing. It is established, that the investigated grades of oats and wheat are perspective and reliable to ensure the varieties, which can be used successfully for the preservation of crops winter, damaged as a result of an extreme environment conditions.
"BIOSPHERE-EQUIPMENT-HUMAN" AND THE SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROCESSES
A.I.Tolomashvili*, G.Sh.Tkemaladze**, G.D.Butskhrikidze*, I.V.Gelashvili*, I.A.Tolomashvili*
It is showed for the maintenance of stabile parameters that ecosystem “Biosphere-Equipment-Human” (BEH), it is necessary to determine the frequency of disturbances, caused by the spread of harmful substances. It is proven that the above can not ensure achievement of perfect characteristics of BEH system without taking into consideration the reliability indicators of personnel and equipment, to correctly select effective preventive tools and develop permanently improving management systems.
RULE OF TENSION PIPE BORE WIDENING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF LIQUID FLOWING WITHIN
A new dynamic task of the tension pipe bore widening caused by the liquid flowing within is fulfilled. Formulae are worked out to determine the normal radial tensions and shifts.
MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF DEFINITION OF SOILS MOISTURE AT MULCHING
I.G.Kruashvili, K.G. Bziava, I.D.Inashvili, M.V.Loria
On the basis of the analysis of the results were of calculatied formulas which probably can be used with a view of a rough estimate of humidity in ground if the data of mathematical modeling of soil temperature is known received.
ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF MACHINES AND WORKING BODIES OF A SOIL-PROTECTIVE COMPLEX
F.A.Mammadov, A.T.Agabeyli, U.F.Bashirov
There are two basic directions of the scientific and technical program of intensification of the manufacture of foodstuffs - increases of fertility ground and creation of technological complexes and systems of machines of new generation. The purpose is development of the soil-protective and ant erosion technologies using effective fertilizers, land improvement and non-conventional materials, energy sources.
Variants of perspective technologies of ground processing, essentially new designs of machines and their working bodies for the enrichment of heavy loamy ground by fertilizers and land improvement materials are considered.
PRODUCTION WITHOUT WASTE TECHNOLOGY OF CLEANING, TRANSPORTATIONS AND CLEARING OF FRUITS OF NUTS
The distinctive features of yields of the nut fruit cultures from the fruit, consisting of presence of pericarp determining the necessity of the mechanized primary clearing of nuts, as additional link in the general cycle of line technology of cleaning, transportations and commodity processing of a filbert and a Greek nut is emphasized. The purpose is to increase the general level of mechanization, quality and profitability of manufacture of yields of nut fruit cultures. Projects of the mechanized production without waste technologies of cleaning, transportation and primary clearing of a Greek nut and a filbert are considered.
MAJOR ESTIMATION PARAMETERS OF THE FILTRATION LOSS
Validity of application of equation Bernoulli is proved at the description of a hydro mechanical picture of potential movement. Criterion values of the top and bottom limits of infringement of the linear law between seepage velocity and pressure gradient are established. In view of abnormal properties of adsorbed film water and on the basis of structurally-geometrical ideal model of the soil calculated dependence for definition of seepage factor is received. For forecasting of seepage intensity the semi-empirical dependence is recommended which was developed for a wide class of soil on the basis of generalization of numerous fields and laboratory experimental data.
SUBSTANTIATION OF THE BASIC CIRCUIT AND SOME PARAMETERS CONTACT THE LINEAR-STEP-BY-STEP ELECTRIC DRIVE
N. A.Beridze, T.A. Simonishvili, N.A.Surguladze, T.Sh.Kobakhidze
In the article the urgency of the electrified monorail transport for performance transport - technological operations on slopes and in complex relief conditions is proved. The differential equations of flat movement of a wheel, also the parametrical equations of the instant center of movement which continuously moves along a way are solved. The design of the linear - step-by-step electric drive functionally corresponds to a task in view, and the received settlement results are adequate to preliminary results of the experimental researches.
IMPROVEMENT OF EPIZOOTOLOGICAL PROGNOSIS MODEL IN CASE OF APHTHA
O.I. Bakhutashvili, M.G. Kereselidze, G.V. Davituliani, I.P. Tatrishvili
Additional auxiliary factors for improving the methods of short-term and long-term prognosis as well as for making the basic model are given; comparative-epizootological, historical-statistical, geographical and economic conditions expressed in mathematical equations are taken into account. Seasonal changebility of epizootological process in Malander in Georgia is studyed and it's concluded, that the movement of Malander within the republic increases in numbers, coming to maximum in summer and autumn periods, for the last 20 years it comes accordingly to 32,0±10,15 and 47,32±16,35, when in winter and spring they were equal to 13,42±6,85 and 19,8±8,65 and it's nearly 2,5 times less than before. First breakup begin in summer, that, in our opinion, is connected with the start of migration of great number of animals to the summer pastures. Another seasonal breakup of the infection is noticed in autumn, when sheep moves to winter pastures. Then comes a "phase of calmness" and later, the activation of Malander comes to its breakup again. Inactivation of aphthous fever virus in soil has been studied, in the regions, covering the zones of driving away route (Dedoplistskaro, Signagi, Sagarejo, Tsalka, Ninotsminda, Aspindza), due to seasonal prevalence; it made 41 days in winter, 25 days in spring, 14 – in summer, 31 days in autumn. In the soil tests, covered with photographic paper, the data were quite different. In these soils, activity period of aphthous fever virus was by 20–20% longer than in the soils, that were exposed to ordinary daylight. Along with inactivation of aphthous fever disease, effect of temperature and pH was studied too. Thus, inactivation of aphthous fever disease in the environment is in direct relation with the seasonal prevalence, concentration of water ions, temperature and light irradiation.
THE PRINCIPLE SCHEME OF OBTAINING, PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL, TOXIC AND ANTHELMINTHIC PROPERTIES OF PREPARATION GZ-048 AND COMPOSITIONS ON ITS BASIS
D.S. Zurabishvili, I.N.
Gogolashvili,P.A. Rostomashvili, M.C. Kartvelishvili, Iu.F. Sadaterashvili,
The new anthelminthic preparation (GZ-048) was synthesized and the method of its receiving with high yield was elaborated. Compositions GZ –050 and GZ-060 were prepared on its basis. Preparation GZ-048 has low toxicity and is effective in minimum dose (40mg/kg) on sexual-mature fasciola. In combination with acemidophen (GZ-050) in dose 50-130 mg./kg, it completely set free animal from 5-6 week-age trematodes (EE=IE=100%).Preparations GZ-048 and GZ-050 are more effective than hexykhol, methylin and acemidophen. Preparation GZ-048 has manifested synergisms with acemidophen and phenacetin (GZ-060) – decrease toxicity nearly twice and increase spectrum of the pharmacological action.On the basis of our investigation, it can be concluded that preparation GZ-048 is very perspective for medical treatment of sheep from fasciolesis. It can be used for constructing herbicide, phungicidic and anthelminthic compositions.
AVIAN INFLUENZA AND VETERINARY-SANITARY CONTROL MEASURES
T.K. Kurashvili, O.I. Bakhutashvili, I.F. Kharebadze, V.P. Nebieridze
The origin of the new diseases and pathogens unknown earlier in science and practice, outbreaks and epizooties of the known diseases in new, changed forms of the epizootic stereotype, when the new biological organisms are involved in pathological process – are one of the main problems of global epizootology.The real practical, important reasons of the avian influenza outbreak are unpredicting changes of Intercorelation and interrelations in the systems – biological, organism-pathogen-environment, as the global, even unimportant changes in nature affect adequately the nature of the biological properties of the pathogen with the result of associated new pathogenic mutants, they break through the specific barrier of immunity and infect a new biological organism, besides that, one of the factors causing avian influenza in men is the virus mutation in an organism. The cause of pathological process of swine and “enriched” variants causing pathological process was elucidated by us early in 2004. Influenza virus (A) is labile genetically and when getting into an organism together with avian influenza transforms a new mutant, which gets the property of the disease transmission from a man to a man and the time is not far off when the global – pandemic and epizootic spread of avian influenza will happen by means of aerial – dropping transmission with mass mortality of men. Besides that, in our opinion the activization of pathogens of smallpox, rinderpest and swine-plague will happen in the nearest future. For the prevention of avian influenza penetration from certain countries, it is necessary to keep veterinary supervision on the imported agricultural products with the prohibition of live birds, frozen meat and semi-finished products importation, as well as to disinfect transport and men-foot passengers. Veterinary-sanitary measures should be carried out against infectious diseases as well.
ON TUSHURI SHEEP AND ITS HISTORICALLY FORMED TWO INTRASPECIFIC TYPES
Sh. A. Lolashvili
The article deals with sheep breeding in Georgia, mainly the characteristics of Tushuri breed of sheep as well as the study of its intraspecific types in comperative aspect by their wool, meat and milk productivity.
PVFT PHAGE AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS STRAINS CAUSING INFECTIOUS DISEASE IN ANIMALS
T.G.Gabisonia, L.G. Chanishvili, M.M.Nadiradze, N. K.Chakhunashvili, .J.Loladze, D.A.Maglakelidze, I.A.Makadze, K.A.Didebulidz, G.S.Melashvili, T.K. Kurashvili
Prophylaxis and treatment of infectious diseases in animals is a major problem of practical veterinary. It is considered that the phage preparations may serve as an alternative remedy to antibiotics and sulphanylamide preparations in treatment of staphylococcal and streptococcal infections. It is significant to note that along with mono-infections causing by staphylococci and streptococci, associated infections are very frequent as well as both with intraspecies and among species variation. Insofaran apparent tendency of development of resistance of these bacteria to antibiotics consolidate our decision to create a new phage preparation. As a result of thorough selection a new polyvalent phage preparation - VPFT has been produced. This phage contains phages against staphylococci (S.aureus, S.epidermidis, S.saprophyticus) and streptococci (S.pyogenes, S.viridan, and S.agalactica)
QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE STRUCTURE OF AMINO ACIDS OF WHITE TABLE DRY WINES LOW IN OXIDATION DEPENDING ON KINDS OF USED FERMENTATIVE YEAST
G.A. Samvelyan A.L.Hunanyan
By laboratory researches and industrial experiments application of technological ways of fermentation with the use of carbon dioxide pillow and fractional application of sulphurous anhydride the practical opportunity of receiving of white table dry wines of low oxidation value from the varieties of new grape generation Kangun and Ayvazyani Vardabuyr is established. The positive influence of use of fermentative yeast pure culture of Sacch. vini and Sacch. oviform is on wine quality in comparison with spontaneous fermentation is identified to decrease the general nitrogen and amino acids in experimental wines, thus preventing occurrences of over-oxidation tones.
THE ECONOMIC GROWTH DEBATE - GEOGRAPHY VERSUS INSTITUTIONS: IS THERE ANYTHING REALLY NEW ?
S. Ahlfeld, H.-R. Hemmer and A. Lorenz
International analysis of economic growth has confirmed the theoretical assumption that international variations in per capita income can to a large extent be explained by differences in the accumulation of capital and human capital and by differing rates of technological progress. However, these results do not provide an answer to the question as to what causes trans-national variations in accumulation rates and technological progress.
In searching for the ultimate drivers of economic growth, three competing lines of explanation have emerged:
• The geography-hypothesis which assumes that economic growth is ultimately determined by geographical characteristics
• The institutions-hypothesis which views the quality of institutions as a fundamental driver of growth
• The policy-hypothesis which emphasises the importance of economic policy
This paper provides an overview over these three hypotheses and revisits the debate over their empirical relevance. Comparing the three approaches leads to the conclusion that none of them is really new and that many of their findings have already been incorporated into the strategies for international development assistance. Furthermore, the three hypotheses are not as exclusive as the debate on geography versus institutions would suggest but are indeed interconnected and complementary.
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