|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE Vol. 4, No. 2, 2006
PLANTS AND CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENT
E.G. Kvesitadze*, G.I. Kvesitadze**
This article aims to provide fundamental aspect of phytoremediation, based on the wide scale of experimental data on detoxification of organical environmental contaminants in plants. The unique physiological features of plants are discussed in relation with oxidative degradation of contaminants. The plants actively degrading contaminants of different structure are selected and shown in seperate table. Authors aimed to convey the framework upon which the comperatively new and multidirectional discipline of phytoremediation is based. The selective use of vegetation for the decontamination of polluted sites would bring to the creation a new ecological concept based on the joint action of microorganisms and plants finally aiming at the increase of ecological potential of our planet.
OF FUNGICIDAL AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OF MODIFIED
2,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLTHIOAMIDES AGAINST STRAINS OF YEAST-LIKE FUNGI
M. Kostecka *, U. Głaszicz*, Z. Maliński**, A. Niewiadomy*
Increase in the number of mycotic infections observed lately has aroused greater interest in them. Despite intense research many problems concerning infections have not been solved yet. Of particular importance is phenotype changeability and ready fungi adaptation for new environments resulting in earlier acquisition of resistance to fungicidal drugs. The research carried out so far has shown that the strain Candida albicans is a main pathogen responsible for candidosis. The recent data show that also the strains of non-Candida albicans e.g. Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis are of high virulence. Proteolytic activity is a specific characteristics of yeast-like fungi being a main factor of their pathogeneity besides adherence. At present there is a large demand for modern drugs of stronger fungicidal action and large range of activity. The 2,4-dihydroxyphenylthioamides derivatives studied by us exhibit strong biological activity towards yeast-like fungi from the genus of Candida. For some compounds modified in the N-aryl ring, the values MIC μg/mL (minimal concentration inhibiting microorganism development) were lower compared to those of commonly known azole preparations. The action of N,N-[2-ethyl-3-(4’-chlorophenyl)-crotonate]-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl-thioamide inducing significant changes of enzymatic activity of studied strains is quite promising. From the obtained results it can be stated that the chosen derivatives or their structural analogs can become interesting objects while looking for new drugs.
This paper discusses the genesis of soil from the parent material to the initial soils, starting from the soil-forming factors and the processes initiated by them so as to produce visible characteristics. Initial soils are regarded as the result of a multi-factor process, which also explains the great variety of initial soils. A tabular survey conveys an idea of the international range of such soil types. A list of references may help to find information on more possible soil developments.
FEATURES OF DISEASE OF "CURLY LEAF" OF MULBERRIES
N.A. Stepanishvili, Z.G. Putkaradze, E.V. Kimutsadze, I.O. Chargeishvili
TOne of the sources of distribution of an infection is cutting of sick plants and a sick landing material. Illness is not transferred through ground and seeds. The optimum temperature for the development of the activator is 25-300 by C. High humidity of the ground promotes distribution of the disease. Negative influence of increased dozes of nitrogen and its application is investigated on the development of disease. The most effective way of struggle against it is establishing of steady grades. Operation (exploitation) of mulberry trees is the most provocative factor for the development of disease.
ON THE EFFECT OF INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ZEOLITE - LAUMONTITE ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN IN MIXED SOWINGS
L.J. Gvasalia, M.A. Kardava, T.G. Andronikashvili
It has been identified that an application of laumontite containing rocks in the acidic, infertile soil of Kolkhidian lowland allows to lower the acidity of soil solution by 2,5 units (from pH-4,2 to pH-6,7). It’s estimated, that application of combination of laumontitecontaining rocks from the deposit of Georgia and fresh cattle manure as a fertilizer increases 2,7 fold the numbers of tubercles on the soybean’s roots. It’s showed, that the above mentioned fertilizer increases the yield of soybean’s total plant weight and grain by 29,5 and 28,3%, respectively, and yields to no mineral fertilizers in the efficiency of its positive influence, also as distinguished from the last ones this fertilizer is characterised by the effect of after-action during three years.
ANIMAL BREEDING AND FODDER PRODUCTION IN GEORGIA:ANALYSIS OF CURRENT SITUATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT. INFORMATION 1. ANIMAL BREEDING
G. D. Agladze
The article offers an overview of data on the dynamics of indices in animal breeding and fodder production in Georgia through 1985-2005, also analyses main developmental trends of the named branches in perspective. The author identifies causes of ongoing processes and significant changes in animal breeding and fodder production, which determined: a significant reduction in the number of cattle and poultry and decrease in productivity, as well as a decline in meat and diary production. The author proposes gradual rehabilitation plan of both animal breeding and fodder production, the level of which has not yet reached the level of that of 1990, excluding milk and honey production.
IMPACT OF RANGELAND USE ON LIVESTOCK PRODUCTIVITY
During the transition period, the intensive fattening practices have become less important. Range fattening (nagul) has several economic and zoo-technical advantages as compared with traditional fattening. In this context, the present article reflecting the practical opportunities for range fattening is of a considerable interest to livestock specialists. Livestock benefits from free fodder while being grazed on natural rangelands. This process does not reqiure labor consuming process of livestock feeding, cleaning, arranging for stable and shelter etc. The article is written based on the data collected from various breeding farms located in Panfilov district of the Almaty Province. Traditional fattening was performed as a control and was based on the availability of feed resources. The author demonstrates that during the grazing season, the rangelands located near by the settlements are being degraded. Remote rangelands can be used more efficiently for fattening. Yield of wood was also higher when the animals were grazing on remote rangelands.
BIOENERGY AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NATURAL GRASSLANDS OF ARARAT DEPRESSION IN ARMENIA
B. Kh. Mezhunts
Studies of productivity and energy potential were carried out in the natural pastures and hayfields of the Geghama ridge and Mt. Aragats. Laboratory measurements were made in the Reading University (UK). As established, the productivity of grasslands varies within 159-408 g/m2, energy potential – 3.0-7.4 MJ/m2, gross and digestible energy values – 15.1-20.0 and 9.6-10.8 MJ/kg respectively, the content of in-vitro digestible organic matter – 524-618 g/kg and crude protein – 72-200 g/kg, which are basically comparable with the literature data. The influence of plant botanical groups and vertical zones on energy potential and fodder plants quality of the studied pastures and hayfields is also considered in this paper.
OXIDATION OF ORGANIC XENOBIOTICS BY PHENOLOXIDASE FROM TEA LEAVES
M.V. Pruidze, G.A. Khatisashvili, N.T. Omiadze
The processes of oxidation of nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by crude preparation of phenoloxidase from fresh leaves of tea plant have been studied to reveal a role of plant phenoloxidases in oxidative degradation of organic xenobiotics. Catechol and preparations of polyphenols and catechins from tea leaves have been shown to stimulate hydroxylation of nitrobenzene. It was suggested that oxidative degradation of xenobiotics with participation of phenoloxdase is carried out by co-oxidation mechanism: the enzyme oxidizes natural substrates and formed active intermediates (semiquinones, quinones) in turn oxidize xenobiotics.
RESULTS OF GENETICAL AND SELECTIONAL STUDY OF NATIVE AND SELECTIONAL SORTS OF GEORGIAN SOFT WHEAT
P. P. Nasckidashvili, M.P. Nasckidashvili, I. P. Nasckidashvili
As a result of the selectional and genetical study of native and selectional sorts of Georgian soft wheat has been discovered that at their genetype almost whole are those genes which determine high ability of adaptation, stability to diseases, restoration of pollen fertility, winter hardy, fast growth of plants, high-productivity of plants, short stem, easy threshing ability, stability to scatter of corns, high-protein in corns, flour-milling and bread baking high-quality. Moreover, at their genotype have been discovered dominant complimentary genes, which determine, at selectional meaning, such undesirable phenomenons as: hybridous necrosis (genetical system Ne1+Ne2); the red hybridous chlorosis (genetical system Ch1+Ch2); the yellow hybridous chlorosis (genetical system Chl1+Chl2) and the hybridous dwarfness (genetical system D1+D2D3). Moreover, there has been discovered the combinational ability of native (Tetri dolis poori; Tsiteli dolis poori, Lagodekhis grdzeltavtava, Hulugo, Tetri ipekliy, Korboulis dolis poori) and selectional (Dolis poori 35-4, Dolis poori 18-46, Vardzia, Aisi, Tbilisuri 5) sorts of soft wheat.
INFLUENCE OF PLANTING TERMS UPON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CACTUS DAHLIA
CULTIVARS UNDER TBILISI CONDITIONS
The paper deals with the influence of planting terms upon the growth and development of Cactus dahlia cultivars under the conditions of Tbilisi. The third decade of May and the second decade of June are considered to be the best periods for planting when cultivating Cactus dahlia cultivars. When Dahlia cultivars are planted in late period the interval between different development phases is shorter. Less time is spent on care of plants consequently, expenses are less, which is very important for wide production of the plant. But the advantage of early planting is early flowering and tubers of high quality.
ANOMALIES OF TEMPERATURE OF AIR AND RAINFALL IN SAMTSKHE-DJAVAKHETI MOUNTAINS
R.S Meschia, G.P Gogitshaishvili, T.T.Urushadze
In XX century in the investigated region a cold continuance of year was warmer, than a warm continuance of year that grows out from the modern climate fluctuation.The back coupling of sediments with the air temperature  is revealed, i.e. at magnification of the positive anomalies of temperature of air, sediments decrease, and at growth of the negative anomalies of temperature, on the contrary, rainfall amount increase. It is legitimacy it is preserved as monthly, seasonal, and in an annual interval of time.As a whole, ÕÕ-that century temperature of air in explored region, both in cold, and in a warm continuance of year was low, and for last 50 years - high.The important feature of the next months of anomalies of temperature of air is that warm month is followed by a cold month. For example, for warm November - cold December, for warm January - cold February and warm March follows. In a warm continuance of year in many months the original inertness as after the abnormal month anomaly of the same character is more probable, than opposite comes to light. Such communication of anomalies of neighboring months shows that synoptic situations frequently begin in one month and grasp others. It happens, that it covers some months. The received effects give evidence about basic regularity of secular change of a regime of temperature of air and sediments in Samtske-Djavakheti, that has major scientific and practical value.
DISTRIBUTION OF DENDROPHILE SAWFLIES (HYMENOPTERA: TENTHREDINIDAE) OF KAKHETI AND NUKHA-ZAKATALA DISTRICT
In Kakheti and Nukho-Zacatala districts of Georgia: 16 species from 3 families of dendrophile sawflies were revealed and were distributed according to height. The table shows that 10 species were marked in I- belt 0-500 m a. s. l., where 3 species Tomostetus nigritus, Macrophya albicincta and Neodiprion sertifer were common for that belt, but for the second above 500-1000 m a. s. l. 12 species, where Hoplocampa minuta, Blennocampa pusilla and Macrophya annulata were common only. Thus, 6 species of the revealed sawflies were common for the 1st- belt, but over 10 species for double belt distribution.
POTASSIUM NUTRITION OF TEA BUSH
The application of potassium fertilizer increases tea-bush productivity till to 50%. Average quantity of potassium has to be 25 mg/100g. in soil, and 2% in leaves. Chalking of soil reduces the availability of potassium in leaves. It was identified that increasing the potassium in soil reduces entrance of magnesium in tea leaves.
AGRONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGIC INVESTIGATION OF INTRODUCED GRAPEVINE CULTIVARS (RIESLING, SAUVIGNON,GROUP OF PINOT) IN THE ZONE OF BITSMENDI
K.V. Gogishvili, N.G. Tzertsvadze
In the article are given the results of agronomic and technologic studies of the introduced European grapevine cultivars: Riesling, Sauvignon, Pinot black, Pinor white and Pinot gray in the zone of Saguramo-Bitsmendi. According to the data of our investigation these cultivars are well adapted to the soil-climatic conditions of the zone; they have developed all physiological stages according to the climatic factors; show satisfactory level towards fungi diseases; reached the stage of full maturity, which became the result of high and quality harvesting; lastly, excellent wine materials have been made for the production of sparkling wines. The results of these investigations allow us to recommend all these varieties for cultivation in the regions of Shida (Inner) Kartli.
AGROECOLOGICAL POINTS OF HOP (Humulus lupulus L.) GROWING IN EASTERN GEORGIA
L. S. Makhauri
In the work is given agroecology of the hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which grows wildly in Eastern Georgia. Ecological conditions of its growing, is investigated its biochemical indexes and dynamics of the heavy metals contained in the cones of the hop have been investigated.
MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE DEFINITION OF HEAT CONDUCTIVITY OF SOIL FOR ACHIEVING THE HARVEST OF EARLY AGRICULTURAL CROPS
I.G. Kruashvili, K.G. Bziava, I.D. Inashvili, M.V Loria
On the basis of mathematical simulation an establishment of a picture of temperature distribution at a soil depth as a result of operated energy in a mulching zone.
FORECAST OF FIRMNESS AND DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF COVERING CONSTRUCTIONS OF IRRIGATION CANALS
The article deals with the estimation of the technical-operational covering of irrigational canals which have been carried out from concrete and cement-bound surfaces. The necessity of the account of the surface of molecular effects of water movement for capillary "apertures" is underlined. The design model of the combined reinforced-concrete flume is considered and the definition of size of the residual deformation for each thermodynamic cycle of cases for statistically equal systems is offered. The conclusion is drawn that the quality standard of deformation essentially correctly reflects a specific cycle of lengthening flume is drawn and allows to pick up the concrete recipe excluding emergencies in à flume of water-spending canals.
POSSIBLITY OF REDUCING ROTARY WIDTH FOR WHEELED TRACTORS AT CULTIVATED AREAS
V.A. Butshukuri, R.R. Kikvidze
The article considers the operation of the proposed device designed for reducing the radius of rotation of wheeled tractors when leaving a cultivated area and thereby reducing the width of the rotary strip.On the basis of the conducted research of kinematics and dynamics of the rotation, when the rotation is effected by means of additional front wheels disposed transversely to longitudinal axle of the tractor, its working capacity and expediency of use is identified.
OPERATION ANALYSIS OF THE IMPROVED MOUNTED MECHANISM
V.Z.Miruashvili, O.M. Tedoradze, Sh.G. Kavtaradze
In the present paper we consider the problem of motion of the aggregate during conduction of agricultural processes in interspaces of cultivated plants. Theoretical analysis of the operation of a new mounted mechanism is given. The interrelation between design factors of hydromechanical system of the mounted mechanism and amplifiers of the power system of tractor management has been established.
STATUS OF REPRODUCTIVES AND MEASURES AGAINST PIROPLAZMIDOZES
E. G. Gojayev
Pyroplasmosis ought to be included in the ecological group of transmissible endogenic parasitic disease, the originators of which leave the final or definitive master only through the biological transmitting agent. In the separation of beneficial animals and predators in the identification of pyroplasmosis, besides zoological criteria it is necessary to take into account immunobiological characteristics. Pyroplasmosis develops its sensibility in large horned cattle, zebus, and all aged hybrids, irrespective of sex, race and physical status.
ON THE DIAGNOSTICS OF ANIMAL HELMINTHIASES
H.Z. Naghashyan, A.R. Hakobyan, V.B. Andriasyan, O.V. Shcherbakov
The paper is dedicated to the comparative analysis of the effectiveness of several flotational helminthoovoscopic methods of helminths laboratory survey. The most efficacious method has proved to be a flotation method after Shcherbovich.
CORRELATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS OF BEEF OF THOROUGHBRED AND CROSS-BREED YOUNG
The article is dedicated to the correlated contacts of the features, characterizing the meat qualities of bull-calves of the Caucasian fulvous breed and its cross-breed with the specialized meat breeds of hereford, sharole, limouzine, kian, also zebu of Pridneprovsky meat type of cattle.
TOXIGENIC CLOSTRIDIA AS A CAUSAL FACTOR OF ESCHERICHIA PATHOGENICITYS
J.V. Natskebia, E.J. Natskebia, K.J. Natshkebia
Clostridia, in spite of being anaerobes, keep in touch with escherichia in places of their joint inhabitance and as donors transmit to them different properties: pathogenic, hemolytic, antigenic, resistance to antibiotics and so on. Escherichia being permanent inhabitans of gastrointestinal tracts of men and animals, belong to normal microflora, however among a large number of cells there are individuals copulating with clostridia and getting different factors from them; this phenomenon can be realized in other ecological niches of environment. The pathogenicity of escherichia is caused by the transmission of toxigenicity from clostridia, though they are avirulent.
X-RAY PHOTOMETRICAL INDICES OF MINERALIZATION OF THE BONES OF HEALTHY COWS AND COWS ILL WITH OSTEODYSTROPHIA
X-ray photometrical indices of mineralization of the fifth tail vertebra of healthy cows of the red-steppe breed in condition of Georgia make up 17,560,43 mg/mm2 and even more. Decrease of mineral saturation from 17,120,26 mg/mm2 to 16,080,27 mg/mm2 characterizes the subclinical stage, and less than 16,080,77 mg/mm2 also the clinical stage of osteodystrophia. Roentgenography of the last tail vertebras of cows shows the clinical stage of the disease. It is characterized by a resorption of the last tail vertebras, from which formations of the kind of one or two sports are remained and on the superincumbent vertebras it is characterized by an absence of the distinct trabecular picture or by an absence of relief and widening of the bone canal.At this stage of disease in the serum of the blood of ill cows there was noticed a decrease of the general protein 16,280,122%), non-organic phosphorus (4,480,18 mg%), and an increase of activity of the alkaline phosphotase (4,480,18 units of Bodanskiy). While kept keeping at the main ration, giving the mineral-vitamin addition, a high consistence of the fifth tail vertebra could be observed: 17,840,32 mg/mm2 and even more.The method of X-ray photometry is the most prospective one for an early diagnostics of the mineral metabolic disease. The method of X-ray photometry can also be applied for controlling the efficiency of treatment and preventive measures in the system of clinical examination of animals.
EFFECTIVENESS OF DUST AEROSOL OF VACCINATION OF POULTRY AGAINST NEW CASTLE DISEASE (ND) BY VACCINE FROM STRAIN BOR -74
E.G. Khorguani, V.A. Tshikadze
The optimum immunizing dose of virus vaccine from the strain BOR -74 for the poultry with the dust aerosol vaccination has been established in order to research the effectiveness of the dust aerosols of vaccines serologically in reaction on glueing and by bioprobe. The dispersiveness of dust- vaccine and concentration of dust -vaccini in the poultry yard has been identified. The economic effectiveness of the proposed method in comparison with the basic- intranasal method of vaccination has been identified.
TERMS OF DAMS' PREGNANCY, FRUITFULNESS AND VIABILITY OF YOUNG SHEEP OF CORDELI TYPE
The duration of dams` pregnancy, lambed by singles, formed 148.58-148.92 days, at fluctuations from 142 till 157 days, and lambed by twins, accordingly – 148.36-148.60, at fluctuations from 144 till 155 days. A reliable difference has not been defined and also in duration of dam’s pregnancy, lambed by reels and ewe-lambs. The results of our researches show that the duration of dams` pregnancy of cordeli type is relatively short and characteristic for early meat-woolly sheep. The outlet of lambs for 100 lambed dams on the average for three years makes 120.4 % at fluctuations from 115.4-126.8 %. From all the born lambs on the average for three years for the spacing 87.5 %, with fluctuations from 85.5 up to 91.6 % were kept. The outlet of lambs for 100 lambed dams by the moment of spacing has made 105.3 %, with fluctuations for 98.5 up to 107,1%. The practical outlet of lambs on the average for 3 years formed 94.8%, with fluctuations with 92.4 up to 99.8 %.
PERFECTION OF COGNAC SPIRIT PRODUCTION BY MEANS OF APPLYING WINE MATERIALS WITH OPTIMAL DOZE OF FIBER
D.A. Bolkvadze, L.A. Mujiri
A great demand and wide consumption of spirit including cognac spirits require profound research and expansion of production. The objective of the present work is improvement of the quality of cognac spirit by means of using the wine materials with optimal doze of fiber. Objects of research were wine materials received from industrial sort of grape “Rkatsiteli”. Tentative and control wine materials were prepared by adding of pressing and combs of grapes with a different percentage. Alcohol fermentation was carried out and then distillation of wine materials on cognac spirit. When analyzing the obtained results, they show that all the researched variants of wine materials and cognac spirits are close to the ports of existing standards. The best results were received in the variant of Rkatsiteli + 5% pressing. These data may be used for processing of rational technology of producing a high-quality cognac spirits.
EASTERN BORDER OF THE AREA OF PICEA ORIENTALIS AND ABIES NORDMANNIANA AND THEIR BIO-ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
N. A. Dzotsenidze
According to the studies of some researchers burials of Picea orientalis and Abies Nordmanniana were exposed far more eastwards than is the present day area. It is explained by the fact that in xero-thermal period that followed glacier epoch two mesophite species disappeared, which is due to mainly by the arid atmosphere and deficit of precipitates. At the extreme eastern limit of the present day area, due to dry climatic conditions spruce and fir were replaced by more xerophite species, such as, beech, pine, hornbeam and oak
CONDITION OF LANDSCAPING IN CITY OF GYUMRI
A. S. Khatshatryan
As a result of devastating earthquake in 1988 and energetic and economic crisis of the 1990s, significant changes in the variety of vegetation, i.e. trees and bushes took place in Gyumri. There was a significant decrease in the green zone of the city. Presently, there are 65 varieties of vegetation in Gyumri. Comparative analysis of the data from 1966 to 2005 demonstrates that during last 40 years the variety of vegetation in Gyumri has decreased almost two times.
GLOBAL WARMING AND THE PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN GEORGIA
The global warming could be the reason of changing the stability of ecological systems, which has been formed for centuries, and has become the reason of transformation of living organisms. The aim of Scientists is to predict in time, the development of this processes, otherwise it could be possible to loose the living organisms useful features which are necessary for human existence. These processes are discussed in this paper in Global and Regional level.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF STATE REGULATION AND CONTROL OF BANKING IN REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
In recent years, in a number of developed countries, the expediency of separating the control and regulation functions of banking from the Central Banks is noticeable. This was necessary to assist central banks to carry out a more complete independent fiscal and crediting policy.At present, when the world economies are involved in the globalization processes, due to the increase of the role of the communication technologies it becomes impossible for different countries to develop their economies separately if there are no banking and fiscal systems of full value which function in the regime of integrated regulation in respect of control. Now, it is actual to develop and generalize the ideology of the banking control and approaches in carrying out reforms in the legislative sphere of the state control and regulation of banking.
SOME QUESTIONS OF THE STATE REGULATION OF AGRARIAN SECTOR
In the article the basic aspects of state regulation and support of agrarian sector of economy are analyzed. Having allocated specific features of agriculture as brances, the author makes an attempt to formulate full, adequate and precise definition of the essence of the state regulation in the agrarian sphere. Special attention is paid to the factors of economic system making necessary intervention into the state economy. It is marked in particular, that the role of the state regulation rises in conditions of transitive economy.
MEETINGS AND WORKS WITH V.A.KOVDA
A number of problems of soil science in light of the scientific inheritance V. A. Kovda is considered, urgent from the point of view of modern scientific, practical and ecological tasks; importance hydromorphic a stage of soil formation on plains of the modern continental block which is taking place in geockratic mode and a present stage of work above classification of the soils;. probability of synthesis of quartz and clay minerals at soil formation in connection with special biogeogenetic by environment of mineral formation in pedosphere; problems pedo-lithogenic connection soills and deposits of hydrosphere on connected of geography and genesis of clay minerals of soils and ocean deposits; importance of classification works and global pedo-lithogenic generalizations by V.A. Kovda; concept about the advanced fertility of a soil cover in works of V.A. Kovda. The facts from personal meeting of the author with V.A. Kovda since 1953 are informed also.
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