|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE No. 4, 2004
TRANSFORMATION OF LAND USE IN MOUNTAIN ADJARA AND ITS POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES FOR LAST 15 YEARS
Main results of the post-soviet land use transformation in the mountainous districts of Adjarian Autonomous republic are shown. Land use changes are manifested in full destruction of monoculale tobacco farming, reduction of areas under everlasting soil-protective crops, increasing cattle number (the last 5-8 years). Total increasing areas of soil-exhaustive tilled crops, first of all maize, lack of soil amelioration resulted in broad scale activation of soil erosion and sharp decrease of soil fertility. Decrease of rural population and gender-age changes could be considered as indirect consequences of land use transformation. The dual role of landslides is discussed: land sliding simultaneously acts both as destructive factor and as periodical mechanism of renewing mountain ecosystems, soils and settling areas.
AGRIBIOLOGICAL BASES OF THE CUT AND LOADINGS OF THE SPROUTS OF THE NEW SELECTION SORT OF THE VINE ANAIT
Grape-vine loading influence on crop-capacity and growth of the sprouts are studied. It is suggested to leave 50 eyes, while cutting the plants which provide high stable and qualitative crop, good growth and ripening of the sprouts.
ON THE EFFECT AND AFTER-EFFECT OF APPLICATION OF SOME ZEOLITE-CONTAINING ROCKS INTO THE SOIL ON THE YIELD OF DILL AND TABLE BEET
K.I.Beriashvili*, O.I Zardalishvili*, T.G.Andronikashvili**
*Georgian State Agrarian University,
**P.G.Melikishvili Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry of Georgian Academy of Sciences
The paper deals with the issues connected with the measures favoring the increase of fertility of the so-called "poor soils". It has been found that application of natural zeolites, and namely clinoptilolite- and phillipsite-containing rocks, as well as their combination with mineral fertilizers into such soils, largely contribute to the growth, development and rising of the yield of the crops such as dill and table beet.Alongside with it, it was established that in distinct from the mineral fertilizers, the natural zeolites applied into soil are characterized by the useful after-effect lasting some years. In our experiments it made three years.
THE RESULTS OF CROSSING THE VARIETY OF ARABICUM JAKUBZ WILD GROWING WHEAT T.DICOCCOIDES SCHUEBL WITH CULTURAL SPECIES OF WHEAT
P P. Naskidashvili, ?. ?. Naskidashvili, I. P. Naskidashvili
In order to obtain initial material with high technological qualities of grain 14 sorts of white Georgian wheat have been crossed. The results are described in the article.
HEAVY METALS CONTENT OF PHOSPHOROUS AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS
G. N. Margvelashvili, O. G. Oniani, G. A. Javakhishvili
Georgian Research Institute of Soil Science, Agrochemistry and Amelioration
Heavy metals content of phosphorous (single superphosphate) and organic fertilizers is determined. The effect of single superphosphate and manure on the rate of heavy metals content of soil is studied. The environmental impact of phosphorous fertilizers is estimated with regard to the contamination of soil with heavy metals.
SOME BIOCHEMICAL FEATURES OF DIFFERENT PEAR VARIETIES
Long research results on variability of pear fruit chemical composition in conditions of Tashkent region are presented. Content of main chemical components, defining fruit taste qualities such as dry matter, sugars, titrated acidity and ascorbic acid has been studied. Data on 98 pear varieties belonging to different ecologic and geographic groups with different time of maturation have been obtained. Some regularity has been revealed in variability of the chemical composition on varieties and on time of maturation depending on the year climatic condition. Some pear varieties possessing high content of main chemical components have been picked out for breeding for fruit quality. As a result of research one can state that the sum of rainfall, duration of vegetation of fruit, harvest and the sum of effective temperature influence on fruit chemical composition. The content of chemical composition in a pear is the feature, which changes under the influence of climatic conditions of the year to some extent.
INHERITANCE OF PROTEIN, STARCH AND OIL CONTENT IN MAIZE HYBRIDS, OBTAINED BY THE METHOD OF DIALLELIC CROSSING
In order to develop high-qualitative maize varieties and hybrids, it is very important to make right evaluation of economically valuable traits of inheritance. In this connection different methods for analysis of initial material allow to evaluate it more effectively on the first stage of breeding. In the paper analyses of some chemical indices, particularly protein, starch and oil in maize hybrids, obtained by diallelic crossing are demonstrated. On the basis of data obtained on inheritance of these traits, great differences between inheritance coefficient in narrow (h2) and broad (h2) sense, of starch and protein content are conditioned by strong non-additive gene effects and oil content by additive gene effects
EROSION POTENTIAL OF RAIN IN GEORGIA AND ITS EVALUATION IN CONNECTION WITH THE CHANGE OF CLIMATE
Maximum amount of erosion potential of rain (E.P.R.) is on the costal part of Western Georgia – 120 Mj×t/ha×min (unit). To the East, E.P.R. is decreasing to 20 units. In the Eastern Georgia most part of the territory is located between izoerodents with E.P.R. 5-20 unit. In the last 10-15 year E.P.R. in the Western Georgia increased from 30 to 40 % and in the Eastern Georgia from 20 to 60 %. The investigation shows, that map of the E.P.R. for Georgia (and other countries of the South Caucasus) must change every 5 or 10 years.
ON THE CENTURY REGIME OF GENERAL AND LOWER CIRCLE CLOUDINESS IN GEORGIA
R. A. Gvazava
The paper presents analysis of Tbilisi hydro meteorological station on general and low cloudiness over the period of 1894-2004. By means of the computer integral calculation it is established that the cloudiness has the tendency to increase for the last forty years. The cloudiness increases in a low layer. The main reason of this process is pollution of the atmosphere with anthropological aerosols.
?N THE QUESTION OF DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL CIRCUITS OF THE AGRICULTURAL ELECTRIFIED BRIDGE UNITS
A. K.Didebulidze, D.I.Gabelia
Problems of creation of special control circuits, intended for developed at participation of theauthors alternating current asynchronous electric drive with coordinated rotation of engines for wide-grab electrified agricultural bridge unit, running on the circuit of the electric working shaft, are considered. Special attention is given to the increase of control efficiency. The design procedure and results of experimental researches are reported.
RIPPER POWER PARAMETERS ON UNILATERAL TERRACES
This article is devoted to the problem of ripper parameters optimization for work on unilateral terraces. Ripper with curvilinear rack in the form of a logarithmic coil with the reduced width of the rack has been offered. Developed ripper reduces traction resistance on 32 % compared with the existing one. In the developed three rack ripper unit the optimum distance 50 centimeters, reducing traction resistance up to 40 % between racks is determined.
DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL DENSITY OF THE CROPS OF HOEING CULTURES
E.D. Shapakidze, D.V. Natroshvili
Georgian State Agrarian University
The article refers to the determination methods for the density of the crops of hoeing cultures, for the density of the crops influences on the volume of harvest. According to the given scheme for sowing the number of seeds to be sown in one hole is necessary to fix and determine according to the density. Afterwards, the field germination ability of the seed will be analyzed. The given ability of the seed may be determined by the Theory of Probability, namely, by the Binominal Law of Distribution. Respectively, there is a monogram drawn through which the number of germinated plants in correlation of the field germination ability is fixed. This is necessary if a real picture depicting the distribution level of seeds in a row is to be shown.
MODELING OF EXPLOITATION PARAMETERS OF THE UNIVERSAL ROW-SOW TRACTOR AGGREGATE
G. G. Muradyan, A. J. Aghasaryan, A. G. Muradyan
On the basis of the described research in this article we found mathematical expressions of the modeling exploitation parametres of the universal row-sow tractor aggregate to improve economical extra-productivity.
MELIORATIVE ACTIONS ON REGULATION OF WATER AND HEAT OF SOIL
I. G. Kruashvili
Georgian State Agrarian University
The character of hydrological cycle within the system climate-soil-plant is considered. To regulate heat, air and moisture of the soil applying methods of mulching and drip irrigation certain meliorating actions have been used. The results are described in the paper.
STABLE FORMS OF CHANNELS CROSS-SECTION OF MELIORATIVE WATER-CURRENTS
E. G. Kukhalashvili, R. V. Danelia, I. Z. Gogsadze, R. Sh. Kruashvili
Steady forms of the meliorative water-currents, economically favorable morphometry and hydraulic unfavorable parameters should cause their reliable and safe operation during the whole period of operation.Hence the intense condition of soil the model was selected on the basis of which the calculation dependences of outline of cross section of water-currents, tolerance width and speed were received.
PROGNOSIS OF HIGH-WATER FLOW OF MOUNTAINEOUS RIVERS IN WESTERN GEORGIA
Ts. Z.Basilashvili, J.G. Mamasakhlisi
To prevent economic and social damages caused by flooding we elaborated forecast of high waters runoff. Simple statistical multifactor model has been worked out for forecasting. By means of expanding the factors of the indices of different periods the impact of temporal dynamics of hydrometeorological elements on the forecasting of discharges is considered. Choice of informative predictors is carried out on the basis of the objective statistical analysis. The best versions for the forecasting of the dependence of flood discharges are established. Procedures for calculating long-term high-water flows for the non-investigated rivers of the southern Caucasian slopes of west Georgia of characterized with difficult water regime have been worked.
APPROXIMATE METHOD OF CALCULATIONS OF CARRYING ABILITY OF LARGE PANEL BUILDINGS
S. A.Daveyan, R.S. Minasyan
The approximate method of the definition of the hardiness of the inner walls of large panel buildings is suggested in this article. This method is based on the results of preliminary study of the tension condition of the walls. This method is mainly used in studying the tension condition of the inner walls of the buildings taking to account deformation of the assembly nodes under vertical loadings.
TECHNOLOGY OF ADDITIONAL FERTILIZING OF PLANTS BY LIQUID ORGANIC-MINERAL FERTILISERS
R. E. Ramazashvili, Y. E. Ramazashvili
The paper deals with the technology of preparation of liquid organic-mineral fertilizers from peat by means of electric-hydraulic effects. Technology of subsoil introduction of liquid fertilizers in tea plantations and the principal schemes of machines to be operated on small contour (portal electric chassis) and large land plots, modules (electrificated bridge aggregate – EBA) are described. The formula has been derived for estimation of productivity of EBA.
LEUCOCYTES INTERFERON REACTION (LIR) AND BOVINE LEUKAEMIA VIRUS (BLV) IN CATTLE
M.M.Mikeladze, I.I.Georgadze, T.K.Kurashvili, A.G.Tzulaia
The objective of this study is investigation of the leucocytes interferon reaction in cattle infected with bovine leukaemia virus (BLV).The study has shown leucocytes significant lower interferon induction in vitro in cattle infected with bovine leukaemia virus. The research has shown that the leukocytes interferon reaction may be used to determine lymphoid tissue functional activity and organism immunoreactivity during different diseases including lympholeukosys.
INFLUENCE OF THE CRYSTALLINE KB-5 ON THE CHICKEN EMBRYO AND POULTS OF POST-EMBRYONIC PERIOD
L.T. Danielyan, S.A.Alexanyan
Positive effect of KB-5 crystalline bactericidin on the development of chicken embryo, their safety and output of high per cent (90-96.6) of full-fledged chicken with high immunological status are considered in the article. KB-5 crystalline bactericidin stimulates physiological functions of embryos, including non-specific protection factors. In the first day of chicken’s life the titre of normal antibodies reaches serum 1:64-1:256, the quantity of ß and ? –immunoglobulines, the quantity of erythrocytes and color index, as well as the quantity of erythrocytes increase. After elimination of mother antibodies the above mentioned indexes stay at the same level.
CAPACITY PROPORTIONS OF STOMACH IN FIVE-YEAR LAMBS OF ARMENIAN SEMI-COARSE-WOOD BREED OF SOIL, BROUGHT UP IN DIFFERENT ECOLOGICAL ZONES
R.S. Mkhitaryan, M.G.Mirzoyan
The absolute capacity indexes of separate camera of stomach and stomach as a whole for species of Aragats type were much higher, than for Martuny typ. For Rams of both types has higher capacity, than mother batches. Present proportion of capacity of separate cameras of stomach to capacity of stomach as a whole for species of both types is almost identical. For lambs of Aragats and Martuny types the capacity of stomach makes 1 : 1.76.
CAUSATIVE CONDITIONALITY OF PATHOGENECITY OF ESCHERICHI CONNECTED WITH TOXIGENIC CLOSTRIDI AND THEIR JOINT INHABITANT
J. V.Nachkebia, E.J. Nachkebia,K. J.Nachkebia
The transmission of pathogenic properties, hemolytic activity and antigenic determinants from virulent clostridia to escherichi have been found.. The recombinant strains with useful properties as a result of crossing clostridium perfringens (a donor) with escherichii (recipients) have been obtained and transmissing antigenic properties characterized for clostridii, possessing immunogenic properties against clostridiosis and escherichiosis, to make vaccines and obtain hyperimmune sera.The aforesaid gives possibility to confirm the causative conditionality of pathogenic properties of escherichii and their regular contact with clostridii in environment or in organism cavities.
USING SOYA-PROTEIN AND SOYA-FAT ON ICE-CREAM PRODUCTION
L.E Grigoryan, A.R.Beglarya
There are many researches for using plant row-material in different branches of food industry . We researched the possibility of using soya bean protein and fat in dairy industry. As a result of our research we came to conclusion that change of dairy protein and fat on soya does not influence on biochemical, biotechnological parameters of ice-cream, reduces prices of products and increase effectivity of production.
ESTIMATION OF EFFICIENCY OF CHROMATOGRAPHIC COLUMNS IN WINEMAKING
Sh.J.Shatirishvili, J.Sh.Shatirishvili, J.N.Osephaishvili
Georgian State Agrarian University
Efficiency of chromatographic columns used in high performance liquid and ion chromatographies for estimation of the contents of a number of phenol-carboxylic acids and cations in wine products have been determined.
DETERMINATION OF CHEMICAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF STRONG DRINK “DARY YABLONI”
L. A. Mujiri, E. M. Lotikashvili
The rational technology production of strong fruit drink from grown and cultivated in Georgia apple raw material is worked out. The object of study were different sorts of apples. Different yeast races were selected for fermentation of apple juice. The distillation of fermented wine stocks was carried out. The optimum conditions of the technological process were established on all stages. Chemical and organoleptic investigations of the received wine stocks and alcohol were carried out. Oak extract was used in coupage for the drink. Received ready-drink “Dary Yabloni” satisfies the established standards, required for the drinks of that type.
PROBLEMS OF WALNUT-TREE GROWING IN GEORGIA
The article deals with present state of walnut-trees plantations. Out of nuciferous plantations circassian walnut, filbers, almond and edible chestnut are the mostly distributed species. Under the Forest Fund there are natural forests dominating with circassian walnut (more than 1,2 thousand ha), hazel nut (1,4 thousand ha) and edible chestnut (about 106 thousand ha). Giving an importance of developing walnut plantations at present stage it is crucial to develop unified national program on establishing and growing commercial plantations of walnut in different districts.
CERTAIN PECULIARITIES OF REGENERATION OF QUERCUS IBERICA
J.V. Lomidze, A.T. Urushadze, S.T. Rostiashvili
The article deals with the results of many years research activities on unsatisfactory regeneration of Quercus iberica under the stand of 0/8 density, as well as under the different sized opening (25 x 25 m, 50 x 50 m) and cut belts (10 x 50 m). One of the reasons of poor regeneration is great reduction of its biological resistance due multiple coppice genera-tion.
WHO CREATES JOBS IN TODAY’S WORLD? REVIEWING SMES AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO EMPLOYMENT
*Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Sweden
**Centre for Enterprise and Economic Development Research (CEEDR), Middlesex University Business School, The Burroughs, Hendon
THE PROBLEMS OF TRANSITIONAL ECONOMICS
Yerevan State Institute of Economics
The main problems studied in the article are the following: the interconnection between political and economic systems; formation of necessary counterbalance between different branches of authority; prevalence of Law; extreme social polarization; shadow economy and corruption; geopolitics situation; interrelation between developed and transition countries; entrancing the world market; economic integration; policy implemented by international financial agencies.
TAX INCENTIVES OF ACTIVATION OF REAL ESTATE MARKET IN REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
Influence of negative impacts of standard approaches of levying property tax over real estate market was revealed. It was suggested to review standard approaches of property tax calculation and to improve methodology of their calculation, which would give the opportunity to activate real estate market in Armenia, etc.
SOME METHODICAL QUESTIONS OF NON – PAYMENT EVALUATIONS OF ENTERPRISES
S. P. Amirkhanyan, S. R. Hunanyan
The financial non-payment and bankruptcy of enterprises is a new phenomenon for the economy of the Republic of Armenia as well as for CIP countries. This phenomenon has its characteristic features compared with such processes in western countries. This article deals with the critical analysis of the established methods for foreseeing and evaluating bankruptcy in the West. We tried to show the incompatibility of the entire as well as several financial coefficients and economic indices of Altman's Z model with our economic activity and operating indices.The article brings forward the necessity of working out the model of quantitative evaluation of bankruptcy for enterprises acting in the economic and juridical environment of the Republic of Armenia.
STRUCTURE-CONDUCT-PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF ?HE DAIRY MARKETING CHANNEL IN ARMENIA
?.S.Hakobyan, R. Sh.Sarukhanyan
Based on the analytical framework of the structure-conduct-performance paradigm from the theory of industrial organization, the paper analyses economic conditions that determine the development of a dairy marketing channel in Armenia. The study focuses on the three chains of the marketing channel: farmers, cooperatives and processors. The analysis is based on information from cow milk processing enterprises and milk-marketing cooperatives through various surveys and interviews carried out during 2001-2003 periods by USDA Marketing Assistance Project and Agrogitaspyur/Extension Cooperative Development Group.
GREAT ATTENTION TO THE EFFICIENCY OF ECONOMICAL REFORMS
In the article it has been analyzed progress of economical reform in Georgia, which could not help the country to come out from deep economical and financial crisis, the so-called “Shocking Therapy” has not given positive results.
PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF POSSIBLE COMBINATION OF CULTURES IN THE SUBTROPICAL FARMS
R. Sh. Kopaliani
In this proceeding the prediction analysis of disposition of the subtropical cultures in the farmer-peasant farms is given. According to modern demands of market economy the author sets the question about the combination of crops in new sight. Taking into consideration the liberalization of prices and peculiarity of subtropical soils, he offers the farmers excellent scheme of agricultural cultures growing. This scheme is conditionally presented for three zones. 1 - citrus-growing and tea-growing zones; 2 - tea-growing and citrus-growing zones; 3 - tea-growing zone. It is proved economical, ecological and social advantages of wide assortment production. In the scheme the production of tea, citruses, filberts, actinides and other profitable crops in wide assortment is identified. Orientation on monoculture production is very risky and unprofitable because of lots of permanent factors.
|| Main | Editorial Board | Contents | Abstracts | Guide for Authors | |