|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE Vol. 3, No. 4, 2005
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYTOREMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES
J.Ramsden***, V.Aplakov****, G.Kvesitadze**,
The constant increase of environmental contamination by different chemicals is the most important and unsolved global problem. Huge amount of chemicals are annually produced in the world in different ways. Hundreds of millions of tons of chemicals are produced annually. These hazardous substances or toxic intermediate products of their incomplete transformations are accumulated in the biosphere, significantly affecting ecological balance. Nevertheless, plants can assimilate environmental contaminants, and be successfully directed to remove toxic compounds from the environment, providing long-term protection against their environmental dispersal in ever increasing doses.The anatomical-morphological and physiological-biochemical specificities of plants determine their action as environmental protectors and remediators. Phytoremediation is a concept constructed from an emerging natural set of technologies to support a number of recently developed clean-up strategies. Phytoremediation includes the following technologies: phytoextraction, rhizodegradation, phytodegradation, phytotransformation, phytostabilization, etc. The level and the aims of the application of phytoremediation technologies are presented.
STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF MOLYBDENUM ON GROWTH AND NUTRIENTS CONCENTRATION OF
TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum) AND BLACK GRAM (Phaseolus mungo) PLANTS
A. Mohammad and A.
A polyhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of Mo as sodium molybdate on growth and nutrients concentration of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and black gram (Phaseolus mungo) plants. The beneficial effects on growth were noticed at lower doses of Mo upto 0.10 and 0.20 ppm in case of tomato and black gram plant respectively, thereafter a phytotoxic behaviour was observed. The results of plants analysis showed an increase in the concentration of nutrients viz: K, Ca, Mg and Cu upto 0.10 ppm in case of tomato plant, thereafter they tend to decline on increasing doses of Mo. The concentration of Mn and Fe increases and that of Zn decreases throughout the entire concentration (0.05 to 0.80 ppm) of Mo application. There was no effect of degree of Mo concentration in the uptake of Na by tomato plant. However in case of black gram plant the concentration of K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe increases upto 0.20 ppm, after they tend to decline on increasing doses of Mo. The Na content was found to increase with the increasing concentration of Mo over the entire range (0.05 to 0.80 ppm). The results have been explained on the basis of chemical nature of organic ligands present in plant xylem sap contents to form complexes, translocation through plant sap and nodulation in leguminous plant.
ABSORPTION OF PHENOL AND M-CRESOL IN SOILS
M. Sh. Mgeladze*, B. A. Arziani**,
I. G. Abdushelishvili***, V. D. Ugrekhelidze****
Adsorption of phenol and p-cresol in red and yellow-brown soils is investigated. It is shown that adsorption of phenols under study depends from the value of ðÍ, organic matter, and especially, mineral constituents of soil. At low concentration of phenols adsorption basically has the chemical nature, and at their high concentration the major factor determining a soil adsorption capacity is the physical adsorption.
SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF MAIZE IN AUSTRIA: RESULTS OF A LONG-TERM EXPERIMENT
C. GYURICZA*, A. UJJ*, J. ROSNER**
Within the framework of cooperation between the Szent István University and the Vienna University of Agricultural Sciences, soil cultivation experiment in corn (Zea mays L.) monoculture was set up for the first time in Austria near Pyhra (Lower-Austria) in 1996. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ridge tillage (RT) in comparison with fall-mouldboard-plough (CT) and no-tillage (NT) on penetration resistance (PR), soil bulk density (BD) and porosity (P) of sandy loam soil (Typic Agriudoll). Analyses were made at each treatments and different part of ridge (at top of the ridge, side of the ridge and interrow) in 1998, 2000 and 2002. The average PR and BD values were greatest in the no-tillage plot 3.42 MPa and 1.56 g•cm-3, respectively. After six years ridge tillage resulted in lower penetration resistance and bulk density values in the upper 20 cm than conventional and no-tillage. Ridge tillage appears capable of reducing compaction in this soil. These results show that adverse soil physical condition (increased BD and PR) development was justified when using no-tillage in this region.
EARLY DROUGHT DETECTION AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION FROM
OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL SATELLITES
This proposal suggests to use of NOAA operational polar orbiting satellites, which have been in service for two decades. Specifically, the new methods of deriving all aspects of drought monitoring and impacts, which are based on numerical estimation of vegetation health, moisture and thermal indices, are suggested to be used as a proxy for drought diagnosis and forecasting crops, orchards and pastures productivity.
PROBLEMS INVOLVED IN COORDINATION OF AUSTRIAN SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM 2000 WITH THE WORLD REFERENCE BASE FOR SOIL RESOURCES 1998
This paper presents a few practical examples of soils common in Austria, such as Rendzinas, Rankers, Tschernosems, Paleosols, and Pseudogleys, attempting to correlate the Austrian soils classification system, ÖBS 2000, with the systems of the WRB 1998. Questions of detail are discussed – apart from the basic problems resulting from differences in classification structure. Such details refer to the differentiation of Rendzinas and Rankers according to humus type and soil depth, the Tschernosems with their subtypes according to colour and concentration of calcium carbonate, the positioning of the Paleosols in the WRB and, finally, the criteria for classifying surface-water storing soils without abrupt textural change to the Planosols. It should be possible to find solutions by discussing these questions at an international level.
HEALTHY PLANTING MATERIAL MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN THE REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA
A.A Sahakyan, G.H. Melyan, A.A.,
Barsegyan, K.A. Gazaryan, L. R. Aleksanyan
The article deals with potato healthy planting material mass production technology in the Republic of Armenia..
DEUTERATED WATER ON ENZYMATIC SYSTEMS OF PLANTS
The effect of increasing D2O concentrations on GDG activities is similar to the result obtained for MDG, and in particular to those at non-optimal pH values. The effect of GDG enzymatic activity inhibition is twice that obtained at optimal pH values. Comparing the results obtained with malatdegidrogenase and glutamatdegidrogenase preparations we noted that MDG is highly subjected to the inhibiting effect of D2O concentrations at non-optimal pH values.
Inhibiting D2O effect on GDG is observed at lower deuterium concentrations and makes up circa 30-40% decreasing activity of the latter by 3-5%.
SIGNIFICANCE OF NATURAL ENEMY POPULATIONS IN REGULATING THE NUMBER OF SCALES IN
CITRUS GROVES (HOMOPTERA, COCÑOIDEA, DIASPIDIDAE) IN ADJARA
E. S. TABATADZE
The paper deals with the results of monitoring the Japanese scale – Lopholeucaspis japonica Ckll., yellow scale – Aonidiella citrina Coq., Dictyospermum scale – Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Morg. and their natural enemies on citrus plantings of Adjara (Akhalsheni, Angisa, Makhvelauri farms) in 1991-2004. It has been stated, that one of the leading factors of the scale number regulation is the complex of natural enemies. It includes: 9 species of parasitoids (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Aphelinidae), 6 species of predators (Ñoleoptera, Coccinellidae) and entomophatogenic fungi - Aschersonia sp. (Deuteromycota). Among parasitoids, the most spread, more distributed and effective is - Encarsia citrina Craw. The degree of parazitism varied from 0,35 to 40 %. At present from coccinellids Chilocorus bipustulatus L. is more distributed and effective, than Ch. renipustulatus Scriba and Exochomus quadripustulatus L. The scales mortality by predator coccinellids varied from 0,05 -16,6 %. The results of our investigations show, that armored scales entomophages do not always appear, as a permanent and significant factor of scale number regulation. The fungus - Aschersonia sp. is an effective pathogen of the Japanese scale in some citrus groves. The pathogenesity reaches up to 94%. The results of our investigation show, that the scales density has been significantly reduced due to increase of the useful action of natural enemies and, among them, predominantly the new pathogenic fungus - Aschersonia sp., earlier unknown in the Caucasus.
SOIL CONSERVATION BASICS FOR RANGELAND USE
The proposed article addresses an important and timely issue related to studies of the soil conservation aspects of the range management in Southern Kazakhstan on various light grey, typical grey and chestnut soils along the transect of Alatau-Pribakhsh Taukumy mountain. The issue is crucial because despite dramatic reduction in livestock population, the process of soil the resource degradation is still observed and, in some cases, even worsened. This happens mainly due to the intensive use of rangelands located close to the human settlements, which causes over-grazing. The research data have revealed that the soil structure is affected by animal grazing and may vary according to seasons. Also it was found that the degradation due to livestock grazing is more considerable on the light grey soil. All in all, continuous livestok grazing in one spot promote the development of deflation processes. Other important parameter such as soil humidity content, chemical composition, soil erosion process etc. have also been studied.
GEOMORPHOLOGICAL DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS MELIORATIVE FUND OF GEORGIA IN
CONNECTION WITH THE ESTIMATION POTENTIAL EROSIVE DANGER OF THE LANDS
G.P.Gogichaishvili , T.T.Urushadze
For the definition of erosive potential of relief (E.P.R) the technique of the Universal equation of soil loss (USLE.) is used. It leads to geomorphological division into districts of the lands of meliorative fund of Georgia. It is established, that for the most part of the lands E.P.R. makes 5,0 units. From the lands of meliorative fund of Georgia of 30,8 % Arable lands are located in conditions of 1,0 units E.P.R. With low values E.P.R It is characterized by Plains and lowlands, and high values E.P.R. Slopes of foothills with slope up to 24 degrees are allocated.
DIAGNOSTIC AND USING OF STEPPE SOLONETZ OF GEORGIA
R. K. Mardaleishvili, M. V. Tvalavadze, M. R. Mardaleishvili
In this article is considered the peculiarity of steppes solonetz of Georgia. The physical, chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of this soil ought to be improved. It is recommended to apply meliorative ploughing through deep turning up to make friable by adding of gypsum, sowing perennial herbs, fertilizers and irrigation according to the existing norms.
RADIOECOLOGY OF THE AGRO LANDSCAPES ON THE TERRITORY OF GARDABANI THERMOELECTRIC POWER STATION
Kh. R. Khutashvili, Kh. Z. Chankseliani, E. M. Epitov
Several researches were conducted on different distances from the Gardabani thermoelectric power station with the aim of study of radioecological condition on the neighbouring territory. The soil, irrigative and well water, samples of cattle breeding and plant cultivation were taken. “Canbera” and “Nokia” poly-channel spectrometric analyzers were used for the research. The amount of radio nuclides found was the following: soil (20-40m) 0-20; well water – 20; irrigative water – 13; rain water –2. Composition of radio nuclides in plant cultivation and cattle breeding products was studied. The received results show that periodical radioecological monitoring of Gardabani thermoelectric power station neighbouring territory should be conducted.
INFLUENCE OF MINERAL RERTILIZERS ON THE NUTRITIVE REGIME OF ALLUVIAL SODDY ACID
The paper gives the results of long term researches on the influence of mineral fertilizers (nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus) on the nutritive regime of alluvial soddy acid soils of the left bank of the Alazani Valley. Systematic application of fertilizers caused the increase of contents of different fertilizer fractions in soils.
COMPUTATION OF DRAINAGE UNDER THE PRESSURE NOURISHMENT OF GROUND WATERS (IN
ARARAT VALLEY CASE)
The paper is devoted to the computation of horizontal drainage under the pressure nourishment of ground waters by multilayer aquifers. The analytic equations are received to determine drain discharge, depression curve and interdrain distance. Proposed relationships can be used for the design of Ararat Valley drainage system rehabilitation project.
WATER DISTRIBUTION BY FLOWING WELL IN FILTERING MOTION CONDITIONS WITH WELL
N. L. Melikyan
By flowing well water taking the problem of water distribution by fountain-type wells was considered in stationary pressure head filtering motion conditions. Formula (11) is suggested here, accounting filtering resistances in a water-bearing horizon by formula Dupe (2), friction hydraulic resistances in dead part of well by formula Darcy- Vejsbah (4) and in the water receiver filter according to the formula (7). The formula shows that the connection between the well discharge and pressure is nonlinear.
DETERMINATION OF THE FORM OF CURVE DEPRESSION OF SEEPAGE FLOW AND HYDRODYNAMIC
CAPACITY OF PRESSURE REGARDING ORIGINAL GRADIENT
R. V. Danelia, T. E. Katzarava, N. A. Mebonia
The proof about invariancy of forms of depression curves of seepage streams is stated under identical boundary conditions, but with various parameters of water-permeable environment. The calculation method for the definition of stability of a soil body in view of an initial seepage gradient is offered. The paper analized the necessity of specification of existing calculation methods by defining the impact of hydrodynamic (seepage) forces on soil body stability with inclined surfaces of the basis. The approbation of the offered dependences considering features of variability of a complex of rheological characteristics, caused by superficial-molecular phenomena, by the development of a technique of numerical testing stability of slopes with attraction of the extensive data of field observation is offered.
PRINCIPLE OF ACTION AND VECTOR DIAGRAMS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC VIBRODRIVES VIA MAGNETIZATION OF THE DIRECT CURRENT
The proposed study observes the
principles of the impact of electromagnetic vibrodrives via a direct electric
current magnetization. To this end was developed a parity between the active
value of an alternating current and sliding .
CONDITION OF MOVEMENT OF MULTICOMPONENT STREAMS
E.G. Kukhalashvili, N.A. Undilashvili, P.O. Sichinava
In connection with the increase of catastrophic phenomena, in particular because of the direct influence of messengers’ torrents on water resources, which recently has acquired special value, use of natural resources is related to great problems. For the regulation of such streams and with the purpose of selection of protective engineering actions the settlement model is offered on the basis of which characteristics of movement on a cone of carrying out, in particular, the settlement dependences of hydraulic resistance, slope, factor of speed and length of interruption of movement are achieved.
CHARACTER OF CHANGING THE SURFACE LAYER OF STRENGTHENED METAL AFTER WORKING ON THE PLANER AND GRINDING MACHINE
In the article a problem of structural changing of the surface layer of strengthened metal during its mechanical working has been considered. It has been established, that the phase transformation during plane and grinding encircles the layer of surfaces in the 10…15 mkm depth, and reconstruction of instable outstand grating into mantensit grating has been observed.
OPERATIONAL ESTIMATION ISSUES OF THE REABILITATION FOR CUTTING OF IN
During the last years the attention to the restoration and development of the field of tea-growing in Georgia, made actual the creation and working research issue of special technical means, important for reabilitation of overgrowed and running wild tea-plantations.Research results are accomplished on the basis of the theory of likeness of cutting-scattering aggregates of overgrowed tea-plantations and their active experiments’ synthesis methods. It makes possible to generalize them from the other aggregates, make governing the technological process and car working regimes.
KINETICS OF EXPLOSIVE REACTIONS IN SOLID MATERIALS
H. H. Mkhitarian
Chemical reactions going by under detonation speed in solid materials and triggered by exposing their mixtures pills to the uniaxis high pressure have been studied.It is shown that explosive reactions (detonation) are triggered by elastic (percussion) waves, which are direct consequences of the mechanical erosion of the pills taking place under high pressure.According to the results, the reactions take place in the quasi-homogeneous environment and their speed does not depend either on the temperature or the pressure. The speed constants have very large values.
TAXONOMIC STATUS OF REPRODUCTIVES AND MEASURES AGAINST PIROPLAZMIDOZES
Pyroplasmosis ought to be included in the ecological group of transmissible endogenic parasitic disease, the originators of which leave the final or definitive master only through the biological transmitting agent. In the separation of beneficial animals and predators in identification of pyroplasmosis, besides zoological criteria it is necessary to take into account immunobiological characteristics. Pyroplasmosis develops its sensibility in large horned cattle, zebus, and all aged hybrids, irrespective of sex, race and physical status.
THE ROLE OF
LIMBICAL MECHANIZMS IN RESPIRATORY REGULATIONS IN OXYGEN DEFICIENCY CONDITIONS
N.S.Hakopyan, N.J. Adamyan, R.S.
Arutunyan, M.A. Karapetyan.
The structures of limbic system have great integration in vegetative reactions. In the oxygen deficiency conditions we studied the influence of irritation of limbical cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, hypothalamus, septum on the impulse activity of respiratory neurons. Phases of hypoxia were the model of experiment. Irritating some of these structures on normoxia and 4-5 thousand meters higher, we discover inhibiting influence on respiratory neurons; some structures' irritation had activating influence. In difficult conditions of hypoxia (7,5-8 thousand meters) on the reduction of the impulse activity of neurons, stimulation induced uncharacteristic reactions. Those different reactions of irritation lumbic structures have regulation influence on respiratoty neurons.
CONDITIONALITY OF ESCHERICHIA PATHOGENICITY CONNECTED WITH THEIR JOINT
INHABITANCE WITH TOXIGENIC CLOSTRIDIA (INFORMATION FOUR)
J. V. Natchkebia, E.J. Natchkebia, K. J. Natchkebia
In previous reports the data about genetic recombination between Cl. perfringens and Cl.septicum with E.coli were given. In the given work the donors are clostridia – Cl.oedematiens and Cl.chauvoei and recipients – escherichia, that confirms the particular role of toxigenic clostridia in transmission of factors of escherichia pathogenicity and their conversion into potential pathogenes of coli-infection. This fact deserves pacticular attention as the question is about the interrelation of microorganisms, separated from one another in toxonomic hierarchy and escherichia innocuous for man and animals, because of their contact with clostridia, which connected with their joint inhabitance in ecological niche, become pathogenic.
WAYS OF PREVENTIVE MEASURES AGAINST METABOLIC DISEASES IN COWS IN GEORGIA
As a result of researches carried out by us during several years, it is identified, that metabolis diseases in cows are extremely widespread. They have a permanent character, are repeated for several years and affect the economic condition of the owners. As the result of examination of the morphological and biochemical analysis of the blood of cows, we found certain identified erythropenia, lymphocytopenia, oligochromemia, hypoglycemia, hypoproteinaemia, hypophosphataemia, hypocarotenaemia, insignificant leukocytosis and significant hypocalcemia. In connection with this, taking into consideration the biochemical zoning and peculiarities of ecology of country we have developed and applied in industry the mineral-vitamin premix "Mikvit". It is identified that the cows, having consumed "Mikvit" were in a good state; there were nocases of metabolic pathologies.
LAMB BREEDING FOR MEAT PRODUCTION UP TO 10 MONTHS OF AGE DEPENDING ON STOCKS
The live weight of lambs at birth for the year of 2003 is in the limits characteristic for the investigated breeds. At the same time, the greater weight differ corridel lambs type – 4.18 kg. are distinguished by a big mass. On all breeds general regularity of magnitude increase of average daily and relative weight increment is observed for the first three months of life when the main source nourishment is maternal milk. At the age of 3 months deliver lambs are being partly delivered from females as they can already compensate a significant part of ration owing to pastures. At the age of 3 months distinctions are observed in their growth. One of the peculiarities of the sheep’s ontogenesis is their high growth rate up to 6-months age and its drop during the following age period, as has been confirmed by our data. However, at 10-months of age their live weight reaches – 43.2; 46.21 and 49.47 kg, which is effective for realisation, thus facilitating their effective production.
THE INVESTIGATION OF BLACK BAIKHOA TEA PROCESSING ENRICHED WITH STEVIA
V.P. Tsanava, Z.I. Dzneladze, E.R. Gobronidze
Processing tecnology of stevia raw material is studied which contains the following processes: leaf withering up to 62-63% of moisture content, rolling during 45-50 minutes, cutting of the rolled tea on the tea cutting machine, doying till 3-4% of moisture content and dry grading of half-finished product. Technology of black baikhoa tea enriched with stevia is investigated: two rules of manufacturing is worked up. The first - by processing stevia and tea leaf simultaneously, and the second - by mechanical mixing of stevia and tea produces of the same kind. Tea enriched with stevia is recommended both for massive usage, and for medical-profhylactic purposes.
INCREASE OF SAFETY AND STEADINESS OF FRANKFURTER AND PORK SAUSAGES BY THE METHOD
Boiled sausages/ frankfurter and pork sausages/ are referred to the category of particularly perishable products owing to big humidity. It is establshed that at 1.5-2.0 kGy the quantity of microorganisms is decreased in these products and their safety and steadiness is increased without changes of their food value.
PERFECTION OF COGNAC SPIRIT PRODUCTION BY MEANS OF BALANCED WINE MATERIALS’
I.N. Iashvili, L.A. Mujiri
The work presents researches and methods of processing produced technology of the balanced wine materials for a further production of cognac spirits. Objects of research were samples received from the sort of grape “Rkatsiteli”. Wine materials were prepared via methods, for which different amount of fiber is added to the must and ripened on yeast biomass. Works were carried out for distillation of wine materials on cognac spirits. Results of the researches showed that wine materials and cognac spirits meet the requirements of standard examples. Especially we must underline the wine materials by adding yeast biomass and enzymatic agent – mannanaz.
DISCLOSE OF MEAT WITH SIGNS OF DFD IN FROZEN BEEF BOXES BY pH VALUE AND COLOUR
Taking into account the shortage of the reserve of meat, great importance is given to its preservation and to the search of new ways of its right use. The increase of the extent of the selection in the cattle-breeding is improved to the rising of the quality of the beef. Combined industrial keeping and intensive feeding is associated to PSE ( pale-soft-exudative) and DFD ( dark- form-dry) defects with the increase of the quantity of raw materials, which, meanwhile, lessen the exit of the meat with normal autolitic progress. The research of the experiments have shown that it`s possible to appreciate the meat according to its kind of autolize and to classify it. That classification gives an opportunity to the manufacturer to apply original technological approach, by the autolitic progress with regard to the meat, deviated from the tradition.
ON THE ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE: THE ROLE OF FORESTS
In the present paper on the adaptation to climate change: the role of forests, among them forest functionality and its relation to adaptation to climate change, adapting to a new balance..
BOTANICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONING AND DIVERSITY OF ADJARA FOREST VEGETATION
On the basis of the characteristics of climatic and soil types, the areas and the combination of kinds with uniform ecology, groupings with vegetative associations on vertical belts. In floristic area of Adjara allocates 3 botanical-geographical areas and 8 subdistricts:Adjara seaside area (I) with 4 subdistricts: the subdistrict of lowland Kobuleti (I-1), the subdistrict of lowland Kahaberi (I-2), the subdistrict Adjaristskali-chorokhi (I-3), the subdistrict of seaside mountain hills (I-4). The area of middlemontane Adjara (II) with 2 subdistricts: a subdistrict bottom gorge (II-1) and a subdistrict middlemontane (II-2). The area of high-mountainous Adjara (III) with 2 subdistricts: a subdistrict of high mountains Adzharo-Imereti of a ridge (III-1), a subdistrict of high mountains Arsiani and Shavsheti ridges (III-2). Adjara, its ecosystem and phytocenotic diversity of forest vegetation. The amount of wild-growing kinds on a unit of the area (1900 kinds, variations of kinds and subspecies of plants on the area 2900 êì2), is the richest floristic area on all Caucasian ecoregion.
RESULTS OF MORPHOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF CHESTNUT FRUITS IN GEORGIA
In geobotanical area of mountain Kakheti (Lagodekhi, Kvareli, Òelavi, Akhmeta) chestnut fruit investigated by us is divided into three categories: large (10-17g), medium (6-10 g) and small (6g and less). We establish weight categories of fruits of a chestnut of the Western Georgia, in particular the weight of medium-sized fruit has made 6-8 g, of small sized 4g and the weight of large fruit has made 8-10 g and more, though the latter was met extremely seldom and have not been included in a researched material because of their small amounts. Apparently, the weight of fruits of a chestnut of the Western Georgia on the average is 1,5 times less than of the fruits of the same versions of a chestnut of mountainouos Êàkheti.
REGENERATION OF TAXUS BACCATA AND THE WAYS OF ITS EXPANSION IN THE FORESTS OF
J.V.Lomidze, A.T.Urushadze, I.T.Tvauri
The analysis of the natural regeneration of Taxus baccata - the valuable, rare and being on the verge of disappearance species, in the forests of East Georgia is given in the article. There are also shown the ways for the expansion and development of plantations of this species.
COUNTRIES: ARE THEY VICTIMS OR BENEFICIARIES OF GLOBALISATION? AN OVERVIEW
OVER THE MOST RELEVANT ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF GLOBALISATION
In the present debate, knowledge about the causes, the manifestation, and the economic consequences of globalisation are not widely understood. As a consequence, the proper political instruments are seldom found. The paper tries to summarize the most relevant aspects of globalisation from an economic point of view. In this context, the analysis centers on aspects of international trade, of foreign direct investments, and of international capital movements. It is shown how they influence economic growth and income distribution, especially the extent of absolute poverty in the affected economies. Futhermore, the most promising political means to accelerate economic growth and simultaneously to reduce absolute poverty in the participating countries are discussed.
ANALYSIS OF THE AGRICULTURAL GROSS PRODUCT CONDITION OF ARMENIA
A.P. Galanteryan, M.A. Pogosyan
The indicators of gross product in agriculture on both cattle breeding and plant growing are briefly introduced in the article from 1993 to 2003. The calculations of gross product growth resulted in graphics which denote blockade in RA, agricultural gross product growth is observed especially in branches of plant growing and cattle breeding.
ORGANIZATIONAL-LEGISLATIVE FORMS OF ENTERPRISING IN GEORGIA
G. I. Dzagnidze
Transition to market relations requires quick acquisition and mastering of those principles and methods, which are customary in the countries with high developed market economies.In the article, along with the theoretical issues, are considered organizational – legislative forms of enterprising, functioning in Georgia, which are based on the Constitution of Georgia and the Law on “Enterprises”. Today, at the current stage, preference is given to the development of small enterprises, which create favorable conditions for maximal activity of the population and ensure meeting basic requirements of every single person.
ECONOMIC ISSUES ON SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL SAFETY
In the article are discussed social and ecological problems of economic safety, under which we imply manufactural processes (the struggle for existence) and public mentality (struggle for survival) aspects. We highlight the activity of these topics and the need of their global discussion in the countries of transitional economy. The crucial role bears employment, demonology, rational use of nature, rise of ecological culture and the regulating role of the state in solving these problems..
CONTEMPORARY DEMOGRAPHIC STATE OF THE RURAL POPULATION OF GEORGIA
On the basis of the data of State Department for Statistics of Georgia, the indicators of the rural population’s natural movement (childbirth, mortality, marriage and divorce) and their dynamics in 1990-2002 are studied. According to the latest census (2002) materials, the rural population’s marital status and sex-age structure are analyzed. The comparative analysis between the latest data and the data of 1989 is undertaken. A considerable attention is paid to the questions of national structure of the rural population. The projection on the number of the population by 2013 is made.
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