|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE Vol. 3, No. 3, 2005
DEGRADATION OF SOILS AND TEMPORARY ECOLOGICAL CRISIS
In the paper is the review of a role and value of the degradation of soils in the modern ecological crisis. The importance of the doctrine about soils as to multifunctional natural system is shown, which plays an irreplaceable ecological role in the biosphere and life of man.
THE EUROPEAN SOIL THEMATIC STRATEGY – A NEW RESEARCH AGENDA
Winfried E.H. Blum
In the year 2000, the European Commission launched a Communication, entitled: "Towards a thematic strategy for soil protection". This was the first step forward to recognise soil as an important environmental medium, such as air and water, within the European Union. A new research concept was developed, distinguishing between five main soil research clusters: the analysis of processes caused by the 8 threats to soil; the development, harmonisation and standardisation of methods for soil monitoring; the identification and analysis of driving forces and pressures behind soil degradation processes; the analysis of impacts of the soil threats to the ecoservices provided by soil to other environmental compartments, such as air, water (open and ground water), biomass production, human health, biodiversity and culture. Finally, based on this, a 5th research cluster is focussing on new concepts for strategies and operational procedures for the mitigation of the threats to soil. Through this new research approach, priority research areas for soil protection and the management of Europe's natural resources could be defined.
CLASSIFICATION OF PEDOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CHALLENGE FOR THE FUTURE OF SOIL
Until now, the main soil classifications are classification of "pedon" (vertical combination of soil horizons). The problem is that pedon (= type of soil) is not a natural body of the soil cover: its lateral limits are artificial and so the soil maps based on pedon are artificial and wrong representations of soil cover reality and functioning. Soil maps have to try to represent natural limits between natural soil units. Two main natural limits can be represented: the lateral limit of horizon and the lateral limit of pedological system. For soil horizons, good inventories and classifications exist. But what are still missing, are good identification and interpretation of the different types of morphological limits and transitions that exist between horizons, vertically and laterally. The types of morphological limits have to be interpreted, and represented on maps, in terms of dynamic evolution (history and actual): a limit is frequently a dynamic one, a transformation front where a structure is being transformed in another one. For pedological systems, data are still missing about the main types which may exist all around the world. It is urgent to develop the inventory, and detailed studies, of the main pedological systems and their transformation fronts. However, the work already done permits to establish a first list of pedological systems that can be recognised and mapped all around the world.
IS SUSTAINABILITY BEYOND THE FAR HORIZON ?
R. W. Arnold
The article is dedicated to the problem of sustainability. The following issues are discussed: the microbe experiment, eastern island, humanity footprint, economics of sustainability, why society makes mistakes, moving towards new horizons, the road travelled, tools of hope etc.
ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT AND THE CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL FERTILITY
H.-P. Blume* & H. Sticher**
ALEXANDER von HUMBOLDT showed in simple laboratory tests that the composition of air in a closed system with different soil samples changed with time. He found a strong decrease of oxygen which was apparently stronger than a corresponding increase of carbon dioxide. He attributed this decrease to an oxygen absorption to clay and humus surfaces. From today´s point of view, his results may have been based on microbial activity. So, without intending it ALEXANDER von HUMBOLDT developed a method for quantifying soil respiration.
SOIL MAPPING AND DATABASES IN HUNGARY
A special attention has been paid to the characterization of soils from the viewpoint of their sensitivity/susceptibility/vulnerability to various natural and human-induced stresses. Soil susceptibility maps have been prepared for: water and wind erosion; acidification; salinization/alkalization/ sodification; physical degradation (such as structure destruction, compaction and surface sealing) and on the vulnerability of soils against various pollutants (e.g. hazard of nitrate leaching etc.). Systematic monitoring systems were established for registering soil changes.The properly organized hierarchic soil databases (regional, national, subregional, local, farm, field level) represent a comprehensive scientific basis for a sustainable land use and soil management. They offer wide-ranging opportunities for the spatial quantification and comprehensive analysis–modelling–evaluation of soil properties, pedotransfer functions and soil processes. Rational land use and soil management are important elements of sustainable (agricultural) development. Soils represent a considerable part of the natural resources of Hungary. Their rational utilization, conservation and the maintenance of their multipurpose functionality have a particular significance in the Hungarian national economy and in the environmental protection .
SOIL FORMATION ON THE QUARRY DETRITUS UNDER TREE PLANTATIONS IN NORTHEAST
L.Reintam, E.Kaar and I.Rooma
Four neighbouring plots in the area of Narva Quarry, Northeast Estonia, levelled and afforested in 1978 with 2-year-old seedlings of black alder (Alnus glutinosa), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula), were investigated 23 years after the beginning of the ecosystem processes in pure detritus. In comparison with black alder and Scots pine, for some reason, the initial rooting and growth of silver birch seedlings were poor, resulting in low stocking density. In spite of the differences in stocking density, the growing stock, and the pool of accumulated organic matter at these sites and in the formed soil sections, the composition of humus substances both in the forest floor and in the A–AC horizons is in principle similar. Some diversities in the fractions of humus are mainly dependent on the transformation of the fulvates into more stable humates. The development of organic matter and the ochric A-horizon has resulted in a slight decrease in the pH-value and in the manyfold increase in cation exchange capacity and in the content of exchangeable bases, except for sodium. Only slight argillization of the A–AC section has taken place against the background of the breakdown of silt and the residual accumulation of sand fractions. Calcaric Regosols appear to have been formed.
SPACE AND TIME AREAL
The article deals with the influence of the main direction of activity of acad. G.V.Dobrovolsky on the development of soils investigations in Georgia. The pollution of the soils of West Georgia concerning the activity of powerful and "ecological negative" industrial - Zestafoni ferro-melting factory is shown. It was identified that the territory around the factory about 7-8 km is polluted.
SOILS AND URBAN PLANTING
N.I.Sheviakova, T.A.Zubkova, L.O.Karpachevskii
Town soils may be divided into two groups: those, retaining natural habitus and the disturbed ones. Natural soils are preserved in the parks, forest-parks, botanical gardens. In the next part of the megapolice all the soils are contaminated, their pH is increased, with many exchange cations, even up to Na. One of the Na sources is anti-ice means. Monitoring over the salinization can be carried out by electric profilation. Depression and destruction of Trees planted along the streets is observed. In Moscow conditions most sustainable are elms, ash trees, maples.
GENERAL CONCEPT ON FUNCTIONS AND RESOUCES OF THE SOIL COVER IN SCIENTIFIC WORKS
OF ACADEMICIAN G.V. DOBROVOLSKI
The academician G.V. Dobrovolski within several decades heads a soil science in USSR and Russia. He is continuer of the paridigm of V.V. Doukhuchaev. G.V.Dobrovolski much has made for the development of this paradigma. G.V.Dobrovolski has brought the determining contribution to development of a problem of a soil cover as one of natural resources and in the doctrine about ecological functions of soil formation in biosphere.
SOIL KNOWLEDGE IN ANCIENT GREECE AS REFLECTED IN CLASSICAL GREEK WRITINGS
This study is aimed to estimate the degree of soil knowledge in Ancient Greece. The writings of twenty-five prominent Greek scholars (from the 7th century B.C. to the 3rd century A.D.) were carefully collated to find references related to soils. The focus was not only on authors such as Theophastus, Aristotle and Hippocrates, who wrote about agriculture, biology, botany and soils, but also on other less known philosophers, poets and dramatists who in passing contributed to a general knowledge of soils through their descriptions, observations or personal experiences..
GLOBAL WARMING AND PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
The development of the society continues in stable ecological system conditions, results of this stable system are production processes, which were established as the relations of productions many years ago. In Global warming conditions, which is real nowadays, human society needs to be adapted to the new ecological system, change the existing technology, to create a new plant cover shelter. The author draws great attention to the creation of new technologies, which will reduce the pollution atmosphere with CO2. It is high time to start creation of new breeding varieties, they will be adapted to the new ecological system. It is necessary to start research in close relationship with the ecological problems.
ECOLOGICAL ESTIMATION OF SOIL AND RELATION BETWEEN SOIL AND PLANT COVER
The ecological estimation of the soil and the relation between the soil and plant cover, as well as the influence of the ecological factors on the soils productivity has been investigated.
PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES OF BIOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
CONSERVATION IN AZERBAIJAN
Azerbaijan has sufficient natural-climatic potential for all-round spreading of the biological agriculture. Ecological, economic and social advantages of the biological agriculture are indisputable. Although there is a range of natural-resource, economic and organizational-psychological problems in Azerbaijan. A solution of these problems must contribute to the widening of the biological agriculture. A biological diversity is one of the composite parts of the sustainable development concept, closely bound to the biological agriculture management. The specific composition of the flora and fauna is analyzed. The data on specially conserved natural complexes (reserves) are given.
ARARAT VALLEY IRRIGATED MEADOW BROWN SOILS HUMUS CHARACTERISTICS RELATED
TO THEIR SECONDARY SALINIZATION
R.R.Manoukyan, S.H.Bakunts, Jev.N.Badalyan
The irrigated meadow brown soils of Ararat Valley of the RA are characterized by low contents of humus quantity and supplies (1,4-1,7% and 50,3-8,7 ton per hectare).The humus of these soils is of a humate-fulvate type (Ñha:Ñfa = 1,1-2,0). These soils are poor in mobile forms of nitrogen and phosphorus, moderately rich in potassium and contain 9,2-16,0 mg/kg of mobile copper. Humus acids (humoacids and fulvoacids) absorb 15,9-31,0% of the soil copper. The mobile copper is more intensively absorbed by the humus acids of the secondary salinized soils.The irrigated weak alkaline reaction (pH 8,0-8,2), of the soil solution as well as the heavy mechanical composition of the soil has a significant impact on the humus condition of the irrigated meadow brown soils.
RECEPTION OF HIGH HETEROTIC SIMPLE INTERLINEAR HYBRIDS ON THE BASIS OF LINES
DEDUCED FROM LOCAL GRADES OF CORN IN GEORGIA AND ABROAD
Deduced from the local grades of corn "Kartuli Krugi" and "Imeretinski Hybrid" the self-pollinated lines: Im 80, Im 52, Im 1, Im 56, KK 54 and others are the best components at crossing by the foreign self-pollinated lines. On their basis the received hybrids show highly effective heterosis. The foreign lines have shown particularly high combinational ability at crossing with our lines: A 257, C 106, 38-11, M 14 and others. The simple hybrids received on their basis, have shown high reproductive heterosis in both, grains and the green wheat.
MAINTENANCE OF BACTERIAL PATHOGENS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS PESTICID IN FOREST
FARM TYPICAL BLACK SOILS
M.A.Sargsyan, H.R.Mesropyan, H.M.Gdlyan, L.T.Davtyan
According to the research it has been identified that the BT subsp. thuringiensis entomo pathogen available in BTB bacterial preparation after application in forest farm typical black soils preserve in the soil for three months and keep on displaying the abilities of synthesizing spore-crystal complex and biological high efficiency.
INTERACTION OF PHOSPHORUS MANURINGS UPON SOME GEORGIAN SOILS
In the article are given the
results of the investigation of the interaction of phosphorus man rings upon
various types of plants and some types of Georgian soils. The best forms of
phosphorus manurings for the acid soils is the phosphorate flour. As regards
carbonic soils the best variant for them is simple superphosphate.
PECULIARITIES OF PHOSPHOROUS FEEDING IN CINNAMONIC AND MEADOW–CINNAMONIC SOILS OF WEST GEORGIA
N. O. Kiknadze
For the carbonic brown middle-clayey soils of Bazaleti plateau, in the conditions of autumnal interchange of wheat-and-maize harvest, it is considered that the optimum consistency of mobile phosphorus is 3,8-4,2 mg on 100 g soil, that provides a rich harvest. For the brown middle-clayey soils of eastern Georgian meadow, in the conditions of tomato-cabbage interchange it is considered that the optimum consistency of mobile phosphorus is 4,2-4,8 mg on 100 g soil. In order to increase the level of providing mobile phosphorus with 1mg on 100 g soil, in the conditions of its low consistency, one hectare needs to be fertilized with 130-150 kg P2O5 on the brown soil and on the brown soil of meadow – with 140-160 kg.
ULTRASTRUCTURAL REORGANIZATION OF PLANT CELL IN THE PROCESS OF XENOBIOTICS METABOLISM
G.V.Zaalishvili, T.G.Varazashvili, T.I.Ananiashvili, G.A.Khatishvili, E.G.Kvesitadze
The ultrastructural changes, which promote the enhancement of xenobiotic detoxification processes in a plant cell have been been revealed. The main processes observed on the cell ultractrastructural level show: 1) Storage of toxic compounds in vacuoles; 2) Transport of toxic residues from vacuoles to cell outside; 3) Enhancement of biosynthesis of oxido-reductive enzymes and proteins, participating in toxicant conjugation; 4) Contacts of endoplasmic membranes with mitochondria and plastids, allowing to direct the electrons’ flow toward the detoxification processes.
RESULTS OF REVEALING NEW GENETIC SOURCES OF SHORT STEMMING FROM TRITICUM L.
M.P. Naskhidashvili, M.G. Dekanoidze, T.G. Darsavelidze, D.O. Bedoshvili,
It is determined that winter wheat species of Georgian Khulugo, Tbilisuri 5, Motsinave, Tbilisuri 8, Tbilisuri 10, Tbilisuri 12, also winter soft wheat species Bezostaia 1 and three forms belonging to T. carthlicum (var. stramineum –species Dika 9 /14. var. rubiginosum.var. fuliginosum) can be regarded as the genetic source for the production of receiving highyielded and shortstemming source material. The inheritance of shortstemming bears oligene, as well as polygene character. In particular, hybrids T. carthlicum with hard and turgidum wheat and the last species of Georgian soft wheat such as aborigine, as well as selection ones, allow to propose fourlocus model of shortstemming with two pairs of independent locus, whilst the crossing of species of soft wheat c. T. carthlicum (Dika 9 / 14) has discoed polygene splitting.
WAYS OF INCREASING ALFALFA GRASS YIELD AND QUALITY
A.K.Yeritsyan, H. S. Vardanyan, A. K. Alyokhina, A. G. Kloyan
Alfalfa plays an important role in the protein feed production of the Republic of Armenia. It is rich in indispensable amino-acids, mineral salts and vitamins, which are very necessary for animals. The research carried out in Vayots Dzor (Gladzor) and Armavir (Merdzavan) marzes, showed that the variety Urartu 85 exceeds the Aparan local both in quality and yield. The grass yield of the variety Aparan local in Gladzor at the bud-covering stage was 108 centner/ha, at the beginning of blossoming – 139 centner/ha and full blossoming 149 centner/ha. The results in Merdzavan were the following 111, 134 and 143 centner/ha respectively. Whereas the variety Urartu 85 yielded 145, 167 and 185 centner/ha in Gladzor and 137, 162 and 176 centner/ha in Merdzavan respectively. By biochemical analyses of the grass (second mowing) it became clear, that the quantity and quality of alfalfa yield depends, to an extent, on the stages of development of the plant. The new selection variety Urartu 85 provides a high grass yield and quality, and in case of its introduction, the profitability of farm economies will rise.
STUDY AND SELECTION OF TABLE WATERMELON SORT SAMPLES IN CONDITIONS OF ARARAT
V. N. Dabaghyan
During 2000 - 2003 47 table watermelon sort samples were studied. 16 sort of samples combining a complex of economically valuable attributes have been selected. The selected samples represent a valuable material for the selection of future activities.
STUDY OF A PUMPKIN COLLECTION
Eight varieties of Muscat pumpkin collection have been studied. The main parameters for the characterization of the varieties were: the mass of fruit, yielding ability, width of pulp, quantity of suc rose and carotin. As the productive varieties were selected "Berganush", "Population of Shamshadin" and "Bamabak".
PECULIARITIES OF APPLICATION OF STERILE FORMS IN HETEROIOSISE SELECTION OF
R.S. Shahazizyan, S.A. Hayrapetova
To raise the quality of fruits and to increase the yield of tomato in heteroiosise selection sterile forms FS 16/2, 16/5 and 5-2 were used. The created hybrids of 593F1, 594F1, 539F1 and 660F1 are remarkable for comparatively high yield and contents of dry matter in fruits, sugar, vitamin "C" and acidity.
TESTING SOME INDETERMINATE VARIETIES OF TOMATO IN SUBSTRATUM AND SOIL IN WINTER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS
"Blitz", "Big Beef", "Norakert" and "Gardel" varieties grown in soil and perlite with drip irrigation method were observed. Plants grown on the substratum maturated 10-15 days earlier. The productivity of "Blitz", "Big Beef", "Norakert" and "Gardel" varieties were 16,6; 16,7; 15,8 and 15,4 kg/m2 . The productivity of the varieties grown in soil and substratum conditions were not significantly different. Plants grown in the substratum were more profitable due to the early production and a high level of marketable fruits.
BIOLOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS OF NEW INSECTICIDES AGAINST LARVA OF ARMENIAN SCALE ON APPLE-TREES IN ARAGATSOTIN REGION
H.H. Babayan, Kh. L. Mkrtchian
At present the cocside is spread in every fruit-growing thrifties of the region. The cocside is a big eater and it prefers apple–trees, peach-trees and pear-trees. It spends the winter in egg’s stage. Annually it gives two generations. The trials of insecticides (in 2002-2004) have explained the condensation of pasts of the following percentages: confidor’s 0.1, nurel-d’s 0.05, bazudin’s 0.2, talstar's 0.2, aktara’s 0.15. They provide high profitability against the larvas of the first age.
OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS BIODIVERSITY IN GEORGIA
Georgia affiliated to the Convention on Biological Diversity in 1994 and assumed an obligation to protect diversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems at its own territory and support conversation of global biodiversity. Accumulation and preservation of plant genetic resources is not sufficient, they shall be described, evaluated and used. The nature and human are their creator, meaning that a human being took a plant from the nature, improved it and created diversified varieties and forms of cultural plants while contemporary breeders, through random selection, created a new diversity. Hence, principle base for genetic resources of agro-biodiversity or cultural plants are the forms adapted to local ecosystems. These and varieties of modern intensive type serve as a basis for plant growing of the modern agriculture. This means that the priority of biological agriculture, in-situ and ex-situ biological diversity and the equitable and far sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources have been put forward.
HUMAN ENVIRONMENT EXPANSION AS AXIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECOLOGICAL USE
G. A. Gligvashvili, I.B. Sharashenidze, T.T. Urushadze
The determination of a single effective axiological basis feasibility for the implementation of a coordinated strategy and tactic for the ecological natural profit is considered in this article. A deduction of the human environmental expansion on such basis in the nearest future is made.
ADAPTATION FEATURES OF CEREALS’ STEMS TO EXTERNAL MECHANICAL IMPACT
The article is dedicated to the study of structural-mechanical principles of plants’ structure, particularly to the investigation of the cereals’ stem features under the external static and dynamic mechanical impact.
The following types and variations of the pressure on stem at different phases of plant development (stem formation, ear formation and blooming) are discussed: static cross profile curve, by means of thread it is fastened on the stem by one end and by the other end to the static bearing; static cross profile curve with hanging gyro; longitudinal curve; stretching; dynamic curve (fluctuations). As a result of experimental study it was discovered, that cereals’ stems have expressed reaction on weighting during the period between the stem and ear formations. The adaptation reaction of the stems is well-expressed in the case of curve in which the plant undergoes phylogenies and ontogenesis. In the case of compression in static and dynamic curves powerful mechanical tissues are formed, which weaken during stretching. In comparison with the control the plant stem anatomic-morphologic characteristics “as well as the weight” the ears are considerably increasing (20-30% in average), when the range of the fluctuation is 10-18 sm. These parameters of fluctuations are about the same as natural wind impact on the plant.
PROBLEMS OF SAFE EXPLOITATION OF WATER GAS TENSION PIPES PLACED IN GROUND MEDIUM
The article deals with the problem of tension pipe safe exploitation. Formulae were worked out to determine the tension condition of the pipes under the influence of dynamic forces caused by the uneven motion of the liquid within.
LAYING OF WEAR PROOF COVERINGS ON THE SURFACE OF CUTTING TOOLS
D.P. Petrosyan*, G.S. Hovsepyan**, K.G. Karapetyan**, H.S. Alexanyan**
Wear resistance coating technology by the methods of chemical thermal solution treatment with refractory metal salts that are used in titanium – tungsten – cobalt compositions is proposed. The process of chemical thermal hard alloy plate treatment permitting an increase of the wear resistance of cutting tools is studied.
PHYSICAL BASES OF WORK OF ELECTROMAGNETIC VIBRODRIVEN BY MAGNETIZATION OF A DIRECT CURRENT
The study observes double-stroke electromagnetic vibrodrive back and forth motion, magnetization of a direct current at which windings of an alternating current is connected consistently or in parallel. Basic equations explaining fundamental physical work of electromagnetic vibrodrives, the impact of constant magnetization on the intensity of a magnetic field have been identified. Dependences of magnetic penetration and inductance from the intensity of a constant field at constant peak value of a variable making induction has been revealed. When the presence of electromotive force of double frequency in a winding of a direct current is undesirable, the preference should be given to the parallel connection of windings of an alternating current.
STATIONARY HYDRODYNAMIC PROCESSES DUE TO EXTREMAL REASONS IN RESERVOIRS AND
R.V. Danelia, I.Z. Gogsadze
Functional dependences have been identified depicting a fixed hydrodynamic process in reservoirs and channels in a stationary water stream under steady flow and lateral influx, in particular, a velocity potential arising at lateral water flow and the wave amplitude on the reservoir (canal) surface.
CONDITIONS OF STEADINESS OF NON_CENTRAL GRINDING BY CUTTING
Article a problem of supporting vibro-steadiness of non-central grinding machine during grinding by cutting has been considered. As a result of the investigation ineffectiveness of the expand support of turning-part of leadership mandrel of machine in the area of low frequency has been established.
DEVICE FOR PRODUCING FLEXIBLE CONSUMER PACKAGES
E.G. Mailova, A.B.Voskanyan
For manufacturers of the food-processing industry packing is not less important, than the goods. Especially grows the role of packing at saturation of the market. According to the increasing demand various kinds of packing techniques are used. Thus the question of packing equipment for local foodstuff manufacturers acquires more significance. For this purpose has been developed and created a packet producing automatic device which has a simple design. The automatic device allows to receive a qualitative and strong packets development.
SECRETION OF INGIBRATIVE SUBSTANCES WITH MILK
G. B. Seropjan
After intercysterial injection of phecuelinum with milk in 36 cows sick with concealed mastitus, the time of secretion has been identified. The research has shown that it is secreted with milk during 12 hours. It makes possihle to inject cows sick with mastitis with phecellinium twice a day.
ASSORTMENT AND STUDY OF SOME PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VACCINE FILLERS FOR
The article gives the analyses of a study of the same physical characteristics of vaccine fillers – ascangel, ascahgel "K" and lactose for the application in dusty aerosol vaccination of birds against Newcastle disease (ND).
CHANGES OF SOME HEMOTOLOGICAL INDICES IN COWS DURING NEPHRITIS
The study offers clinical-hematological indices in cows during acute nephritis. 16 sick cows were studied. The disease was generally acute and caused depression and weakness, high fever, cautious monement, curved back and painful kidneys. The blood count revealed sharp increase of elitrocytes and leikocytes, as well as.
ANATOMICAL PECULIARITIES OF SYMPATHETICALLY COLUMNS, SYMPATHETICAL GANGLIONS AND
CONNECTIVE BRANCHES IN RAM
In the presented work 12 corpses of rams were preparated for experimental purposes and anatomical peculiarities of sympathetically axle of waist-group, vertebratical bands and connective branches were studied according to academician Vorobiev's well-known method. It was identified that in the sympathetical axle of rams in the waist was noticed 3 variants of distribution of vertebral ganglions (50 %) numbers of axes in column is symmetrical and is six in number, concentric (25 %). There are no vertebral bands on the first, second and third segmental levels in waist, mix numbers of axles (16,6 %) gets more in the waist of the fourth and fifth levels of vertebra. There are three of four ganglions in the symmetrical column of ram where they are distributed symmetrically. The number of ganglions is less on the basis of interconnection of neighboring ganglions.
DIVERSITY AND PERFECTION OF GEORGIAN LOCAL CATTLE
Georgia is the oldest country of cattle domestication. Georgian tribes prepared butter in clay ware during Eneolith period. The bones of domestic cattle are found as a result of excavations, which are dated back the 5th millennium. B.C.More than 7 thousand years since the domesticated cattle is reared in Georgia. Nowadays the genetic resources of local cattle in Georgia are represented by three breeds: Georgian Mountain Cattle, Red Megruli and Caucasian Brown, long before the buffalo is reared in Georgia. The perfection of animals can be achieved through the pure-breeding method, as well as by the use of sires of the best world genetic resources.
SOME INDICES OF ABOMASAL CONTENT IN HEALTHY CALVES AND CALVES WITH DISPEPSION
A. V. Manasyan, G. R. Petoyan
We researched the secretor function of abomasum of calves healthy and ill with dispepsia. We also determined pH of abomasum content, free and banded hydrochloric acid level in this content, common acidity and digestive power. Free and banded hydrochloric acid level common acidity, and digestive power of calves abomasal content have been defined. Free hydrochloric acid is absent , and the level of other indices of abomasal content drops.
CAUSAL CONDITIONALITY OF PATHOGEN FEATURES OF ESCHERICHIA DUE TO THEIR JOINT
INHABITANCE WITH OXYGENIC CLOSTRIDIA
J.V.Nachkebia, E.D.Nachkebia, K.D.Nachkebia
The interaction of Escherichia with other types of microorganisms, among them with clostridia promotes the appearance of new regroups of Escherichia coli, which has the tendency of subsequent growth. The antigenic connection, among the different types of microorganisms, which is observed in nature, is not simply an accidental coincidence, but the result of their interaction , when the different determinants, among them antigenic are transferred from the donor of one type or genus to the recipients of the other type or genus. The proof of such phenomena was the investigation of Escherichia strains connected with oxygenic anaerobes, that testify the antigenic connection among the different serigraphs of epizootic strains of E. coli and clostridia.
DEVISING METHOD OF COMPLEX BIOPOLYMERS QUANTITIES’ DETERMINATION
N.G.Mamardashvili, L.D.Khukhunashvili, L.A.Mujiri
The work is dedicated to devising the method of quantitative determination of complex biopolymers in a brandy. The subject of investigation were Georgian brandies of different maturity, produced in wineries and brandy plants. Selected were overall preparations of complex biopolymers. The complex biopolymers fractioning with organic solvents of different polarity was carried out. Chromatography of the obtained fractions of the complex biopolymers with different ingredients, depending on compounds’ grades was carried out. The spectrophotometric method was suggested as a method of complex biopolymers’ quantitative determination. These data show that the values of specific indices of the examined absorption of the compound solutions are approximate ones within the concentration limit of 1 to 4 mkg/ml.
INTERNATIONAL FOREST POLICY DIALOGUE AND THE SITUATION OF FOREST AT THE GLOBAL
LEVEL: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
In the present paper international forest policy and situation of forest at the global level are analyzed. The author analyzed such questions as recent history of international forest policy, characterization of the international forest policy process, current trends in forest and forestry, gaps between the international forest policy process and forests.
INFLUENCE OF FOREST PROTECTED BELTS ON THE AGRICULTURAL CROP YIELDING
The influence of forest protected belts on the agricultural crop yielding (tea, lemon, tangerine, orange, grapes (vine), fruit, common wheat, barley-corn, maize, sunflower, sugar-beet) according to natural climatic regions is given in this report. On the basis of three years' investigation is established that in fact, normative (standard) yield gain under the influence of safeguarding forest strips for Georgia is composed of: tea – 12,0 center/ha (16%), tangerine – 16,9 c/ha (21%), lemon – 18,5 c/ha (24%), orange – 11,4 c/ha (17%), grape – 6,4 c/ha (18%), fruit – 10,5 c/ha (27%), common wheat – 1,8 c/ha (8%), barley-corn – 2,4 c/ha (11%), maize corn – 3,0 c/ha (14%), sunflower – 1,7 c/ha (20%), sugar-beet – 50,0 c/ha (14%).
LITTER OF DARK CONIFEROUS FORESTS OF GEORGIA
N.G. Tarasashvili, G.S. Vachnadze, G.I. Kukhianidze, G.V. Tsereteli
The process of the formation of dead top-soils in the mountain forests occurs under an influence of various factors, which provides creation of different types of dead top-soils. Furthermore, forest debris peculiarities determine the speed and trends of the transformation of the dead organic matter along with the forest density and consistency, altitude above sea level, an exposition and steepness of the slopes and biogeocenose processes.
FOREST INTRODUCTION IN GEORGIA
Introduction of woody plants in Georgia began more than 150 years ago. At first exotics were planted to decorate historical gardens and parks. Later they were used in landscape and shade gardening or windbreak forest strips. In 1961 under the management of Acad. V. Gulisashvili Abkhazian Forest Experimental Station of the Institute of Mine Forestry began testing biogroups of exotics on the experimental plots, using 100 plants of each species and in 1965 about 20-25 plants were tested in the mine stationary. Later in December, 1999 about 919 species, varieties and forms, belonging to 249 genera and 102 families were collected in Abkhazia Forest Experimental Station and its stationeries.
CHESTNUT WOODS OF MODERATELY DAMP ECOTOPS OF EAST GEORGIA
The work deals with the results on researches of forestry and soil characteristics of chestnut woods of moderate damp ecotops of East Georgia with a dead and blackberry cover and with a hazel grove underbrush..
THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ON CAMBIAL ACTIVITY AND WOOD FORMATION OF
RING-POROUS WOODY TREES
E.D.Lobjanidze*, G.Sh.Kajaia**, M.D.Gabunia***, D.K.Tzertvadze****, A.T.Urushadze*****
Cambial activity and radial growth of wood in stems of ringporous plants (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Ulmus minor Mill., Quercus hartwissiana Stev.) is greatly dependent on conditions of the environment. Particularly the duration of cambial activity in the polluted region (environs of Kutaisi) is significantly (by 8-24 days) reduced as compared with ecologically pure territories (resort Sairme). In extremal conditions the width of annual rings and parameters of the metaxylem elements are sharply reduced, diagnostic signs of wood are lost. F.excelsior turned out to be highly resistant against the technogenic pollution in conditions of Kutaisi city, while Q.hartwissiana and U.minor have revealed low resistance..
UNEMPLOYMENT AND ACTIVE EMPLOYMENT POLICY
A. S. Melkumyan
Comparative analysis of unemployment indicators and factors affecting it and the employment active policy implemented in the Republic of Armenia are considered. High unemployment, hidden employment, underdevelopment of labour market infrastructure, weak use of financial instruments in the employment policy are the problems specific for CIS countries, countries of Central and Eastern Europe. As the analysis showed the effective employment policy does not require additional financial resources, rather it is related to the redistribution of budget resources in favor of active programs. Particularly, the increase of the state budget role in the active employment policy includes a wider use of financial instruments of employment regulation, comprising tax privileges for employers creating jobs and implementing training programs, regional targeted programs and preferences.
ECONOMIC COHERENCES BETWEEN FOOD CONSUMPTION AND INCOME CONDITIONS IN THE
It can be stated that the proportion of food consumption within the total consumption of the Hungarian households is too high. The changes in food consumption can be observed in the case of those products where the extent of price fluctuation was above the average. The investigation of the present situation of food consumption makes the implementation of the real and effective subsidisation-policy and the establishment of optimal structure possible. The result of my analysis at the same time shows the predominance of the Engel-principle and it presents its success under Hungarian circumstances.
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