|ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE Vol. 3, No. 2, 2005
SUSTAINABLE LANDUSE AS A BASIS FOR A HEALTHY NUTRITION AND A CORNER STONE FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Kassel University, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Department for Organic Food Quality and Food Culture, Germany
Eating and drinking (nutrition) is the most intensive land use for human beeings and influence human health directly. Plant and animal products for human nutrition reflect the environmental conditions in which they have been produced (e.g. heavy metal polution or residues of pestizide application). Beside the food production on farms and the traditional food processing, which has been done in regional, small scale units or on farms, increase the added value in the region and develop a regional culture for special food products and recepies. This regional culture introduced by farmers and their products as well as small scale companies are treasures of the region which make people to be proud of their cul-ture and landscape. By changing food habits towards more convenience products the globalisation in food processing and trade influences more and more the knowledge about food and where it comes from. Young people, especially in industrial countries, might have to learn more about food production and the link to regional land use and landscape. The paper presents some examples for Germany.
SUBSTRATE USE AND TURNOVER OF MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN SOILS
R. G. Joergensen
Kassel University, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, Department of Soil Biology and Plant Nutrition, Germany
In the present paper, relationships between C input and turnover of the microbial biomass are analysed with emphasis on the quality of C input and the formation of microbial residues. The relationship between soil microbial biomass and C input was demonstrated as the differences in the microbial mineralization of recalcitrant and easily available sub-strate. These differences lead to different decomposition pathways of organic carbon (CO2, biomass and residues) and have strong effects on substrate use and turnover of the microbial biomass. The annual N flux and P flux through the microbial biomass at arable sites in Germany are 340 kg N ha-1 a-1 and 225 kg P ha-1 a 1, i.e. highly relevant numbers for plant nutrition.
CONTRIBUTION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE TO FOOD SECURITY AND ENVI-RONMENTAL PROTECTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
German Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Agriculture
The paper deals with the contribution of organic agriculture to food security and environmental protection in developing countries.
LANDSCAPE PLANNING AS A DEMOCRATIC INSTRUMENT OF NATURE PRO-TECTION
D.Bruns with the participation of A. Hoppenstedt and A.Winkelbrandt
The paper deals the with the experience of landscape planning in Germany. It analyzes such questions as the task of landscape planning, the methods of landscape planning and the management of the planning process; is given examples of landscape planning for farms and biosphere reserve.
RUSSIAN SCHOOL OF LANDSCAPE PLANNING
A.N. Antipov, Y.M. Semenov
Institute of Geography of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Irkutsk)
The papers deals with the Russian school of landscape planning. It gives the principles and the concepts of the lanscape planning development in Russia, methodical instraction has been made up the widespread introduction of landscape planning as a basis of sustainable territorial development.
LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY, PLANNING AND OPTIMAL FOREST COVER IN ARMENIA
Armenian agricultural academy
A high landscape diversity and degradation of natural components in the present paper is described with specific stress on optimal forest cover due to the lack of corresponding theoretical and practical experience and knowledge in land-scape planning.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE BIOTOPES IN CHUKUROVA DELTA BIOSPHERE RESERVE
University of Chukurova Department of Landscape Architecture, Adana-Turkey
A basic classification of biotope types was carried out in Chukurova Delta, one of the largest and internationally impor-tant coastal ecosystems of Turkey. It includes a comprehensive vegetation analysis that covers the essential biotope types and habitat characterization. Seventy-two biotope types and subtypes were described in a hierarchical system. For field- work geomorphological characteristics and characteristic plants of each biotope type were systematized and a procedure for biotope mapping was developed.
INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION FOR AGRICULTURAL AND RURAL DE-VELOPMENT: BRINGING TOGETHER RESEARCH, EXTENSION AND FARMERS
Riccardo del Castello
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
The papers deals with the information and communication in agricultural and rural development: bringing togrther re-search, extension and farmers.
PROBLEMS OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN AZERBAIJAN
F.G. Akhundov, K.Y. Mamedov, A.D.Babaeva, F.T. Jafarov, R.K. Mamedov
In Azerbaijan theoretical and practical matters on problems of ecological agriculture are studied by Azerbaijan Agricul-tural Academy, Ganja Agribusiness Association (GABA) and Agrarian Informational Center (AIC). They prepared nu-merous instructions on teaching farmers the modern technologies on biological system of agriculture. Associations of different farms were organized on a voluntary basis on the area of 25 and 50 hectares. Trial-demonstration fields on different crops were created in the most districts. High-yield introduced varieties take the main place. The major objec-tive is receiving ecologically pure yield.
EXTENSION OF BIOLOGICAL LAND CULTIVATION AT FARMS OF THE BLACK SEA COASTAL REGION
D.V. Nakani, N.K. Gulua, N.O. Imnadze
ARET Project (World Bank, Georgia)
The paper deals with the Environmental Pollution Reduction Program, which was implemented in Western Georgia, in the basin of Khobistskali River - one of the main tributaries of the Black Sea.
BASIC STAGES OF GEOECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF LANDSCAPE PLANNING
Nature protection, environment reproducing, resource reproducing, recreational and selitable functions have special values for ecologically oriented territorial planning of mountain territories. Recreational and selitable functions are of-ten examined as minor.The geoecological analysis and synthesis of the mountain territories of Georgia, conform with the development landscape planning and programs.
ON THE POSSIBILITY OF INCREASE OF YIELD OF SOYBEAN WITHOUT APPLICATION OF BACTERIAL FERTILIZERS
I.E.Mgeladze, T.G.Andronikashvili, M.A.Kardava, M.K.Gamisonia
P.G.Melikishvili Institute of Physical and Organic Chemistry of the Academy of Sciences of Georgia
It was shown that application of fertilizers on the base of phillipsite-containing rocks and fresh cattle manure enables us to shift to the earlier time certain phases of development of soybean grown in field conditions on the acidic soils of West Georgia. It was shown that without preliminary inoculation of soybean seed by nitragin the introduction of phillipsite-containing rock and manure into the soil favors the active development of nodules on the root system of this plant. This, finally increases the yield of soybean at about 40% compared to the effect of mineral fertilizers on the above stated plant.
VERIFICATION OF NEW MODELS OF SOIL WASH – OFF IN RAINFALL AND SNOW MELTING RUNOFF
Moscow State University, Faculty of Soil Science
The applicability of an exponential function for describing soil wash-off with the combined eroding effect of a rainfall runoff and drops of rain as well as a snow melting runoff is shown. Values of the exponent and the proportionality coef-ficient of the studied dependence of the wash-off intensity were obtained depending on the square of the ratio of the critical (scouring) velocity to that of the flow.
CUCUMBER SOME VARIETIES CALLUS FORMATION PECULIARITIES IN VITRO CULTURE
In accordance with nutrient medium composition and isolated explants having different origins (stem, embryonic and original leaf) local varieties of cucumber (Gayane, Hayarpi) and Israeli Baby F1 Hybrid callus formation peculiarities have been researched in vitro conditions. Experiment results showed that in dependence of nutrient medium composi-tion callus formation percentage varied from 60 to 100% for all researched genotypes except Parthenocarpic Baby F1 Hybrid, which callus formation percentage varied from 87 to 100%.
PRODUCTIVITY OF GRASS MIXTURES IN HIGHLANDS OF ARMENIA
A. H. Hovhannisyan, R. A. Sahakyan,G. A. Tovmasyan, A. R. Khechoyan
One of the peculiar farms of the meadow-steppe zone of the Republic of Armenia is the land plot Darik of "Agrohold-ing" Ltd. Here the main sources of food production for the development of dairy cattle production are the sown food areas together with natural rangelands. But the increase of cropping areas of many valuable fodder crops is impeded considerably by poor nature-climatic resources, as well as insufficient awareness on cultivation technologies of a num-ber of agricultural crops.Taking this fact into consideration, we have conducted research at an altitude of 2000 and more meters above sea-level to identify the efficiency of perennial papilionaceous and grain grass mixtures.The research was conducted by crop rotation in six fields, including into the grass mixture melilot, meadow clover, meadow timothy and gathered globe thistle.It was found out that in high mountainous conditions this grass mixture can ensure about 390 centner green mass, 97 centner dry materials and 14 centner digestible protein, which is about twice the yield gained in case of traditional pure cultivation of melilot, barley and oat.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF HARVEST RESULTS OF LOCAL AND FOREIGN CULTIVARS OF TOMATO
The statistical analysis of harvest of 16 local and foreign cultivars of tomato is performed by use of ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparisons test with 5 % significanse level The rezults are demonstrating that Ranny Nush, Sunshine and Peto 86 are having significantly higher harvest among early ripe cultivars during first 15 days of fructifer-ousness. Rio Grande and Hybrid 201 are the best among regular ripe cultivars. Getapnya is becoming best among late ripe cultivars, and totally, among all 16 cultivars of tomato.
HEREDITY OF SOME QUANTITATIVE FEATURES OF SOFT WHEAT
G. A Sahakyan., M.M. Shaljyan, V.V Hovhannisyan, L. H. Kazaryan
The regularity of some quantitative and qualitative features of soft wheat has been investigated. It was found out, that depending on the differences of the crossed pair of inter varietals hybrids in generation F1 a different type of heredity occurred, beginning from an intermediate heredity up to the full dominate appearance. In the early generation of inter-varietals hybrids, the investigation heredity criterion of feathers conditioned the yield capacity and quality will promote to raise efficiency of the wheat selection.
COMPARING OF TOMATO SOMACLONES
The main goal of our research was a comparison study of tomato somaclones variations in vivo, received from the cal-lus culture in vitro. The regenerants were propagated for the further analyzing in greenhouse. Approxi-mately 13 regenerants were compared. Only three somaclonal varieties with significant characteristics that differ from previous genotype by morphologic features and crops, have been chosen for the future selection.
RESULTS OF USING OF GEORGIAN WINTER SOFT WHEAT ABORIGINAL AND SE-LECTION SPECIES IN INTERSPECIES HYBRIDIZATION
P.P. Naskhidashvili, M.P. Naskhidashvili, T.G. Darsavelidze, I. P. Naskhidasvili, M.G.Dekanoidze
It was determined that from Georgian soft wheat aboriginal and selection species for crossing with the variety of the hard wheat reichenbachii the best components are Tbilisuri 5, Bezostaia 1, and Motsinave. To cross these species with hard wheat interesting forms for selection were received which are singled out with short stemming as well as high pro-ductivity and resistance to diseases. From Georgian aboriginal species-populations as the parental forms the best results give the species of the west Georgia- Khulugo, white Ipkli and “Korbouli Dolis Puri”. From this point of view as the hybridization components the species entering the Kartli ecotype of dry districts of East Georgia – “Dolis Puri” 18-46, “Dolis Puri” 35-4, Kartli white and red “Dolis Puri” and others occupy the last place.
INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT OF FORMS OF MONOECY CUCUMBER ON VARIATLENESS OF SEX IN DIFFERENT PERIODS OF SOWING
The aim of our researches was to identifity the external condition of the display of the sex of the monoecy of the cu-cumber during spring and summer sowing. The results showed, that the studied sorts in different conditions of cultiva-tion have different expressed sex and also the stronger the masculine sex, the greater the quantity of the biotypes in its population.
SOME DATUM OF STUDY OF MITES ASSOCIATED WITH STORED FOOD PROD-UCTS (ACARIFORMES, ACAROIDEA) IN SOUTH CAUCASUS COUNTRIES
14 Acariodea species – the most important pests of agricultural products are revealed in the South Caucasus. Accumula-tion of vegetative remains in grain and other stores or other premises, as well as rodent burrows, hay stacks in nature are of great importance as reservoirs of granary pests.
BIOGEOENERGETIC CHARACTERISTIC OF SOILS OF UPPER IMERETI (WESTERN GEORGIA)
G.P. Gogichaishvili, T.T.Urushadze, I.A.Natroshvili
The energy used on the processes of soil formation is radiation balance of the earth surface, multiply by the coefficient a. The above mentioned coefficient is a completeness, use of solar radiation. On the maize field in v. Kitski and v. hevi, lwer border passes in depth of 16 m and upper border - on the double height of the vegetation. The study has shown, that on the soil formation was spent 30-39 kcal/cm2 energy annually and form 76-79% of the radiation balance of the earth surface. On the cyclical biological processes was spent 0,737-1,551 kcal/cm2 energyannually and form 2,39-4,35% of the energy which was spent on the soil formation.
THE MEANS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF LOW-FERTILE CHERNOZEMS OF EAST GEORGIA
R.K.Mardaleishvili, M.V.Tvalavadze, Ts.I.Pipia
The rational use of low-fertile (saline, compacter and stony , very low-capacity with sulphate horizons) chernozems is achieved by the prevention of the processes that limit fertility. It is recommended to carry out deep loosening is to im-prove aqueous, air and chemical characteristics of the compacter and weak-saline chernozems. The agro-biological methods, tested by us, radically improve compacter and weak-saline soils for 4 years. The depth of plugging should be decreased and fertilizers applied with proper doses to soils with close bedding of gypseous horizons. First of all it is necessary to get rid of the stones more than 5 cm. It is also necessary to sow perennial herbs and apply fertilizers to the land reclamation soils.
APPLICATION OF NEW TOOLS IN WOODWORKING INDUSTRIES
D.P. Petrosyan*, G.S. Hovsepyan**, K.G. Karapetyan**, H.S. Alexanyan**
*Armenian Agricultural Academy, **State Engineering University of Armenia
The paper deals with the application of new tools in woodworking industries.
HARVESTING ACCORDING WITH VERTICAL ZONALITY
The article gives the analysis of grain crops sowing areas according to years, also optimum dates of harvesting is estab-lished, and technical the present condition of harvesting technical equipment is described. On the background of the present stage of development of Georgian Agriculture a full description of mechanized detachment for harvesting is given. An original mathematical model for the calculation of optimum graphics and a number the technical devices is worked out. These mathematical model is one of the multycriterial aims of the linear programming.
METHOD ACCOUNT OF PARAMETERS MONORAIL ROADS ON THE SLOPES
N.A. Beridze, N.A.Buachidze
The paper deals with the analyses of transport-technological activities in the perennial plantations which are disposition on the terraces using of electrical monorails transports. There is establishment volume of loads and formulated purpose of methods calculation – define optimal configuration of monorails roads by the criterion of energetic expenses. On the base research is receive corresponding analytical representation and is approbation in the concrete production conditions.
RESEARCH OF FRAME`S FEATURES OF THOROUGHBRED AND CROSS-BREED COWS
H. R. Andreasyan
Research was carried out in 2002-2003 in livestock farm "Agroservice" in Shaumyan. For research have been made up 6 groups of cows - Caucasian brown thoroughbred 1, 2, 3 and half-blooded - 1/2 Caucasian brown + ½ cross-breed hol-shten 1, 2, 3 issue of cows. Studying was carried out in 2, 3 month of each lactation. Information of measurements of parts of a body is resulted in table 1 and 2. With the help of research it was found out, that basic sizes of the thor-oughbred cows and cows cross-breed 3 breed surpass in corresponding measurements of breeds age cows of khan line registered in 3 volume (4) of the state patrimonial book of the Caucasian brown breed. Cows cross-breed rather high and long. For selection improvement of the Caucasian brown breed it is necessary to use half-blooded breeds of Cauca-sian brown breed cows and cows, which received by crossing of holshten breed bulls.
DEFINITION OF LIVER CELLS FAGOCITIC ABILITY
A.V. Manasyan, A.G.Margarian
The erythrocytes exposed to fagocitos and iron content pygment are revealed in liver cells under pathologic conditions. The main quality of cupfer cells of liver is fagocitos (their ability to absorb colloids bacteria and fat). Our researches were conducted on the healthy and the sick with perstomaches hypotonia and gastro-enterit. In the punctat of liver were found erythrocites exposed to fagocitos by liver cells.
ON PROBLEM OF NUTRITION VALUE ASSESSMENT OF MILK FODDER
The assesment of the total nutrition value of milk fodder based on O.Kelner indices of lipogenesis is not proved scien-tifically. It is reasonable to estimate the nutrition value by means of the net energy volume quantity, which, according to M. Tomme research, amounts to 68% of their excess energy.
CAUSAL CONDITIONALITY OF ESCHERICHIA PATHOGENICITY, CONNECTED WITH THEIR JOINT INHABITATION WITH TOXIGENIC CLOSTRIDIA (SECOND REPORT)
J.V. Nachkebia, E.J. Nachkebia, K.J. Nachkebia
In Cl.septicum as well as in Cl.perfringens the property of transfering of toxicogenic factor, deter-mined in plasmidic desoxyribonucleic acid, to Escherichia has been found out, which beeng recipi-ents, produce the same toxins as Cl.septicum and consequently they become pathogenic. Vaccines, produced from the cultures of Escherichia transconugants, possess immunogenic properties and pro-tect experimental animals from being infected with toxigenic cultures of donors and recipients (pathogenic recombinants of Escherichia). The data of serological reactions and electronic-microscopic photographs have confirmed the transmission of antigenic properties from Cl.septicum to Escherichia.
INFLUENCE OF ZEOLITES TREATMENT ON THE STABILITY OF WINE MATERIALS
T.G.Gonjilashvili, Sh.D.Ugrekhelidze, Sh.I.Shatirishvili, L.G.Bochoridze, B.S.Tsereteli
The paper studies sorption and filtering properties of natural and modified clinoptilolite in regard to colloid substances of grape wines with the purpose of avoiding the colloid turbidity.In the paper it is demonstrated that the content of high-molecular components decreases as a result of treatment with zeolites. In this respect modified clinoptilolite is particu-larly efficient. It is stated that the modified clinoptilolite has no effect on cation content of the treated product; in rela-tion with the latter it maintains its crystal line structure and may be used for the purpose of colloid stability of wine ma-terials with high effectiveness.
INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SYSTEMS OF CUTTINGS ON THE WATER-REGULATIVE FUNCTIONS OF MOUNTAIN FORESTS OF GEORGIA
O.I. Dvalishvili, R.G. Chagelishvili
On the basis of long-term stationary researches, the influence of different systems of cuttings on the change of the basic physical properties of soil, on the character of formation of a liquid and firm drain is revealed, depending on intensity of falling of atmospheric precipitation and its daily maxi-mum on the water-regulative functions of mountain forests. Practical recommendations of the economies, for the maximal prevention of high waters, flooding, the erosive phenomena and the harmful consequences, connected to them are given.
ECOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES FOR DEFINITION OF BEECH FOREST TYPES IN GEORGIA
The article deals with bio-ecological and age stages of the development and further time changes of beech forest types under the influence of anthropogenic ?ffects and calamities. The classification of indicator plants is offered, which are habitat indicators, to define beech forest types. The methods determining mountainous beech types in various ecological conditions are proposed. The recommendations to promote productivity and protecting features of the beech forests in Georgia are given.
PECULIARITIES OF ACTIVITIES OF CAMBIUM AND STRUCTURED FORMATION OF WOOD OF POPLAR PYRAMIDALIES
The paper deals with the peculiarities of the activities of cambium and the structures formation of wood of Populus pyramidalis auct.?auc. It has been stated that the functioning of cambium was observed in the first decade of October; the process of structural formation of wood differs in the conditions of different lighting.
ABOUT NEW SPECIFICATIONS OF OPERATIONAL TERMS AND AMORTIZATION DEDUCTIONS FRUIT-BEARING LONG-TERM PLANTINGS OF ARMENIA
?.G. ?umanyan, F.G. Harutyunyan, ?.F. Harutyunyan
The basic concepts and process of change of annual amortisation deductions of long-term plantings as basic production asset in Armenia, USSR and in modern conditions are discussed. The amendments to the legislation in this branch are submitted. Disagreeing with the association under one title " long-term plantings " of plantings of grapes and having various durability of fruit cultures and the applications of the single one specification of amortisation charges for all, are madeon the on settlement of the question. The term of annual amortisation deductions is offered for each kind of a fruit-bearing garden to combine with durability of their productive activity. With the purpose to account the basic dis-tinctions of durability of long-term plantings differentiation of the amortisation specifications of vineyards carry out - covered rooted and grafting, uncovered.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRARIAN SECTOR BY USING INFRASTRUCTURES
The undertaken surveys show that the social-economic condition of the rural population of Armenia is considerably dependant on sustainable operation of producing, market and social infrastructures, as well as on their efficient usage. As a result of surveys the author defines main infrastructures. Based on relevant calculations and assessments the author suggests an optimal ratio of investments for the development of different producing infrastructures, defines the main directions of their for-mation and proposes mechanisms ensuring implementation of the measures aimed at the sustainable development of agro-food sector by using infrastructures.
ECONOMIC ESTIMATION OF PERFECT TECHNOLOGICAL CYCLE OF SUBTROPICAL PERSIMMON
N. A. Iosebashvili, O. A. Karchava
Georgian State Agrarian Univerity
In the conditions of market economy priorities of the planting production have changed. The pro-duction of subtropical persimmon has become popular, which grows well in the humid subtropical regions. Soils rich in organic substances and good aeration are suitable for persimmon. The paper deals with the methods of perfect technological cycle of planting and producing subtropical per-simmon. It analyses technological adapter of production subtropical persimmon regarding mountain conditions and usage of anti erosion measures. The expenses of subtropical persimmon production have been estimated and cost unit of production was established. The results of the research sub-stantiated priorities of subtropical persimmon production compared to another cultures in the con-dition of Colchis lowland in Georgia.
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