ANNALS OF AGRARIAN SCIENCE    No.  2,  2003
ISSN 1512-1887
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THE PLANT RESOURCES GENETIC POTENTIAL OF ARMENIA AND THE PERSPECTIVE OF THEIR USE IN THE WORLD - WIDE GLOBALIZATION PROCESSES

G. H. Oganezova

Abstract

The partial review of the data of genus Amygdalus L., Armeniaca Scop., Malus Mill., Pyrus L., Mespilus L., Juglands L. and some cereals as "useful plants" (food crops) of Armenian flora, the rich genetic potential of wild flora of the country are demonstrated. The taxon forming into population variability is researched by morphological methods. 

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DROUGHT CLASSIFICATION AND ASSESSMENT OF DROUGHT CAUSED LOSSES

T.I. Tourmanidze

Abstract

Assessment drought as a complex phenomenon has been presented in the article, where except atmospheric physical and biological characteristics of soil and plant are foreseen. It has been worked out a technique of assessment of drought intensity by means of: modified hydrothermal coefficient; critical meanings of mean decade air temperature; a stock of productive moisture by the comparative characteristics - in percentage of limiting water keeping capacity by soil. The method of drought intensity assessment, offered by us, enables the quantitative estimation of negative influence of drought on agricultural crops production, in particular, on losses of crop..

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PERSPECTIVE METHOD FOR SOIL SECURITY FROM EROSION BY MEANS OF VETIVERIA ZIZINIODES THIN LINES IN THE COUNTRIES OF SOUTH CAUCASUS

Ts. E. Mirtskhoulava

Abstract

The problems of erosion of soils in Georgia connected, first of all, with physical geographical characteristics of the country and conditions of agely use of soil surface are considered in the article. In order to protect soil from erosion one of the perspective measures is being proposed such as plantation of lines Vetiveria zizinoides. Georgian Institute of Water Management and Engineering Ecology carried out the investigations for elaborating the dependences to calculate the distances between the lines of plantations with the account of types of soils, precipitations, topography of the hills and dams security.

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THE DAMAGES CAUSED TO WEED-FIELD RYE OF CULTURAL TYPE IN ARMENIA

H.H.Matevosyan

Abstract

Six forms of weed-field rye of cultural type belonging to different ecological types have been studied. The immune forms have been found to be the donors for creation of stable kinds.

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INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL NIPPING ON CROP CAPACITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF YELLOW LEAVES OF TOBACCO

G. M. Arutynian

Abstract

As a result of spraˇing plants with maleic hydrazide at the beginning of flowering stage using optimum dozes of fertilizers (NČČ60P60K75) the increase of crop capacity and commodity qualities of yellow leaves of tobacco have been revealed. 

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THE RESULTS OF STUDY MULBERRY TREE PESTS IN GEORGIA

M.I. Lobzhanidze

Abstract

Mulberry wood is injured by 30 varieties of harmful animal organisms. For their spread and negative character two representatives of wood eaters (Cossidae) from Lepidoptera order ľ Zeuzera pyrina L. and Cossus cossus L. have been the objects of investigation. Their larva's feeding on mulberry wood cause its shivering in the short period of time. The bioecological peculiarities of both species coincide, namely: they are met everywhere in Georgia and damage almost all fruit trees as well as a number of forest foliage trees; only the first and the second year larva's winter; the 1st year larva's winter in the heart of sprouts and the 2nd year larva's in thicker branches. They have two year generation; butterflies fly out in June and July. The effective means of struggle is to create high agritechnical background, to carry out sanitary and hygienic measures.

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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CONSISTENT APPLICATION OF HERBICIDES AGAINST WEED IN MAIZE FIELDS

I.S.Tzereteli, A.G.Agaronyan

Abstract

It is impossible to carry out an all-round struggle against all types of weeds in maize fields through separate use of antimonocotyledonous and antidicotyledonous herbicides. The desired results can be reached only in few farms during certain years. During the period of vegetation of maize, struggle against all types of weeds can be led only by consistent application of herbicides, i.e. using soil herbicides during pre-sowing or pre-germination period and non-soil herbicides during the post-germination period.

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INFLUENCE OF THE LOADING ON THE GROWTH AND HARVESTING OF THE SPROUTS OF THE YEREVAN KHOSHORAPTUKH SORT OF VINE

G.P. Ayvazyan, P.K. Ayvazyan, I.Z. Barseghyan

Abstract

Grape-vine loading influence on crop-capacity and growth of the sprouts are studied. It is suggested to leave 50-70 eyes while cutting the plants which will provide high stable and qualitative crop, good drowth and ripening of the sprouts.

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ABOUT RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINATION OF PLANTS IN GEORGIA

M.S. Kvachantiradze, E.V. Tvalchrelidze, N.I. Gomelauri, T.T. Urushadze

Abstract

As a result of study of the Sr-90 contamination in plants all over Georgia, it was found that the maximum contamination was in 1963-1965. Subsequent increases in the Sr-90 contamination of plants were registered in 1972-1874 and after the catastrophe at the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in 1986. At present the highest Sr-90 contamination of plants is observed in Western Georgia, particularly on the Black Sea Coast. It should, however, be noted that in the high-mountain regions of Western Georgia, potatoes and the 20 cm deep surface soil under crops are not contaminated by Sr-90. Of the perennial woody plants of these regions, deciduous plants contain Sr-90 one and a half as much again at conifers.

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STIMULATORY EFFECT OF SPIRULINA (SPIRULINA PLATENSIS) ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF YEASTS AND SOME MICROORGANISMS

D.I.Jokhadze, I.K.Khorava

Abstract

The effect of blue-green algae spirulina (Spirulina platensis) on growth and development of wine yeasts and seven different species of microorganisms has been studied. It is shown, that the definite doze of algae significantly stimulate the abovementioned processes. In case of Streptomyces violaceus the replacement of carbon, nitrogene and in particular,phosphorus by spirulina, in standard nutrient medium the development of microorgnismes proceeds more intensely rather than in the control samples. In case of replacement of the afforementioned components together with nitrate, phosphate, starch by spirulina, the development of microorganisms remains practically on the level of control. These data may be taken into consideration at the practice of yeasts and streptomycets cultivation.

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SOME ACHIEVEMENTS IN APPLICATION OF NATURAL ZEOLITES IN PLANT GROWING IN GEORGIA

T.G. Andronikashvili

Abstract

The results of the studies of many years showed the expediency of application of natural zeolites of sedimentary origin as well as their mixtures with mineral and organic fertilizers, namely of fresh poultry manure and pig manure in plant growing.
Multiple examples have been presented testifying to the positive effect of the above stated minerals on the growth, development and yield of various plants, which often exceeds the effect of only mineral fertilizers and alongside with it, in distinct from these latter are characterized by after effect.

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THE TRANSFORMATION OF WATER SECTOR IN GEORGIA

D. G. Gubeladze

Abstract

Water institutions, both formal and informal water law, water policy, and water administration are undergoing remarkable changes worldwide. Despite country-specific variations these institutional changes at the international level evidence certain common trends and patterns. This study aims to unravel these trends and patterns by addressing the questions about key factors that motivate these institutional changes, their nature and direction, effects on the overall water sector performance and, finally but more important, if it is possible to use cross-country experience for deriving an international agenda for encouraging institutional change within the water sector.

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PREDICTION OF THE RISE OF WAVES IN TWO-COMPONENT (OIL-WATER) FLOWS

O.G. Natishvili, V.I. Tevzadze

Abstract

Using a dynamic equation in one-dimensional treatment the value of the wave velocity of a two-component (water-oil) flow is obtained at separated motion with account of the densities, volume fraction and average cross-section velocities of the components.

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XRAY RESEARCHES OF STRUCTURAL REINFORCEMENT OF METALS IN THE ACOUSTIC FIELD

L. Azizbekyan, D. Zadoyan

Abstract

The results of investigations of structural reinforcement of metals in the acţustic field are considered. It is established that while reinforcing metals and alloys in the acoustic field the strength and structure of the layer is increased.

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THE MACHINE FOR PACKING FOODSTUFF IN POLYMERIC TRAYS

E.G. Mailova, A.B. Voskanyan

Abstract

To make goods more competitive it is necessary not only to improve its consumer qualities, but also to pack it correctly. New technologies and machines are need to have a modern packages. New machine to produce attractive and tight packages, which allows to win attention of consumers and prolong shelf life of the product has been designed.

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DEVELOPING OF LINEAR PULSE ELECTRIC DRIVE FOR MOUNTAIN MONORAIL TRANSPORT OF AGRICULTURAL APPLICATIONS

N.A. Beridze, N.A. Surguladze

Abstract

Results of long-term research engineering related to elaboration of electrified monorail transport for agricultural applications are presented. New tendencies of electrical transport development are outlined and functional diagram of linear pulse motor or mountain monorail transport is considered.
Analitical expression for synchronous linear speed of linear pulse motor driven transport via design factors and electrical parameters is obtained.

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TRICHINOSES DIAGNOSTICS IN PIGS LIFETIME

G.I. Goderdzishvili, G.J. Sadaterashvili

Abstract

At present trichinosis is a global problem. From 1979 to 2000 it is registered in the counrty every year, 0,013% in 1984 and 0,13% in 1997. During these years in the country at large more than 4 pig carcasses were examined, from which 2471 carcasses were infected that made up 0,057%.
In 1997-1998 the method of trichinoses diagnostics in pigs lifetime has been worked out, which yields positive results even in small invasion. Joint keeping of infected and healthy pigs can infect healthy animals with trichinosis. 

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CULTURE AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SPIROCHETE TAKEN FROM PIGS WITH DYSENTERY 

S.G. Yeghoyan

Abstract

It is established that an anaerobic spirochete Treponema hyodysenterial is primary etiologic agent of pigs' dysentery. The organism is a gram-negative, oxygentolerant anaerobic spirochete. It was isolated for the first time in Armenia, in the nutrient medium, containing dry broth with special preparations. Antibodies to T.hyodysenterial in serum of experimentally affected pigs have been detected.

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MIĐROANATOMIA AND SOME HISTO-CHEMICAL INDEXIS OF "COLON" IN HALF-COARSE WOOD RAMS OF THE ARMENIAN BREED

M.G.Mirzoyan, R.S.Mkhitaryan

Abstract

The apparent difference in results of histochemical and citophotometric investigations of ribonucleoproteids and glicogen affirms more intensively flowing synthesis of proteins and carbohydrates in different cells of "colon" of Aragats type specimen, which predetermines abundant secretion of these cells catalytic activity of cell ferments, intensity of reactions of plastic and energy metabolism flowing in the cell, the advantages of regeneration of cells and inczeases intensity of functional activity of "colon".

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EMPLOYMENT OF THE VEGETABLE PIGMENTS FOR COLOURING MEAT PRODUCTS

E. L. Sahakyan, E. V. Grushina, S. S. Simavoryan

Abstract

In our experiments while making experimental half-smoking sausages, betalain pigments of the table beet were used for getting stable colouring. For control samples with the same aim, nitric acid salts were used. Experiments prove high colouring ability of the betalain pigments. The colours donĺt influence on the taste and aromatic characteristics of the products and make them look better. The way of their addition is simple and doesnĺt brake the acting technology of the sausage production.

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CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS FOR CONCENTRATION AND DETERMINATION COMPONENTS OF WINE MATERIALS

I. Sh. Shatirishvili, Sh. I. Shatirishvili, I. V. Ninoshvili

Abstract

Two methods of concentration of volatile components to determine volatile aroma forming components of wine-materials are considered. Dynamic method of vapor phase analysis in wine and brandy with the help of chromati-mass-spectronomy and chromadistillation is suggested.

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ECOLOGICALLY ORIENTED MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF FORESTS

Peter A. Schmidt

Abstract

The paper considers ecologically oriented management and protection of forests. The goals of research were: investigation of forests as ecosystems, changes in the forest ecosystems due to the utilization and environment, affects and functions of the framework of environmental development, sustainable forest management, ecologically oriented forest management, protected areas for the forest, forest landscape management. 

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SOME QUESTIONS ON THEORY AND PRACTICE OF SELECTION MANAGEMENT IN UNEVEN AGED MOUNTAIN FORESTS

G.N. Gigauri

Abstract

Correct management of different aged forest with optimal resource and maximal growth of wood together with soil protection, water preserve and other useful ecological functions provides high wood productivity. The aim of selection system is to use each tree as medium to increase common forest production. In selection system it is necessary to establish the condition not only for the full forest area, but for single tree too, as they facilitate development of great productivity of the whole forest stands.

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THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FINANCIAL ANALYSIS OF LEGAL ENTITY UNDER THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF TRANSITION TO MARKET ECONOMY

A.H.Bayadyan

Abstract

The transition to new economic relations, namely, towards making financial analysis of various active types of joint-stock companies, small and average sized legal entities and farms, takes place in the Republic of Armenia. The importance and the role of the balance sheet, as financial management instrument, has noticeably fallen and the financial analysis has been more and more acquiring technical-economic chara˝ter.

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THE CONDITION OF THE UTILIZATION OF AGRICULTURAL LAND RESOURCES AND THE WAYS OF RAISING THEIR EFFICIENCY IN ARAGATZOTN MARZ

R. K. Nersisyan, L.A Margaryan

Abstract

Land reform is the constituent part of agrarian reforms in order to find ways to raise the level of using land resources, particularly, arable lands and to provide their effectiveness. It is necessary to enlarge production scales, to organize specified goods industry, to grow plants more intensively, to preserve the regime of irrigation water. The implementation of these tasks will give an opportunity to improve the level of using production resources and to provide principal rise in production effectiveness, to make the value of gross output per hectare, to improve living standards of rural population.

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ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF AGRARIAN REFORM AND THE WAYS OF SOLVING THE PROBLEMS IN GEORGIA

R.V. Andguladze

Abstract

In the work the process of agrarian reform is presented, economical aspects are estimated, directions of development after reform are defined. Special attention is paid to the land reform, development of Georgian Agriculture and elaboration of the strategy of food products safety and necessity of its practical realization.

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THE ROLE OF AGRARIAN SECTOR IN GEORGIAN ECONOMICS AND MAIN TRENDS OF ITS DEVELOPMENT

V.K.Burkadze

Abstract

The ways of development of agrarian sector in the economics of Georgia have been considered. It has been proved that food industry is a priority functioning part of agrarian sector.

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